Activity for the week of 18 October-24 October 2006
Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 18 October-24 October 2006.
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 18 October-24 October 2006.
Activity for the week of 18 October-24 October 2006
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Barren Island||Andaman Islands (India)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Metis Shoal||Tonga Islands||Ongoing|
|Rabaul||New Britain (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Semeru||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|St. Helens||United States||Ongoing|
|Suwanosejima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
Arenal | Costa Rica | 10.463°N, 84.703°W | Elevation 1670 m
In September, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling N, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Blocks from the lava-flow fronts traveled N, NE, and NW, periodically reaching vegetation where they produced small fires. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels, however, with few eruptions occurring and a small amount of pyroclastic material ejected. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash and acid rain fell on the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.
Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India) | 12.278°N, 93.858°E | Elevation 354 m
Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) | 12.77°N, 124.05°E | Elevation 1565 m
PHIVOLCS reported an explosion from Bulusan on 19 October. The following day, steam plumes drifted W and WSW. On 23 October, an explosion produced a brownish ash plume that rose to about 2.6 km (8,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and SW. Light ashfall (trace to 0.5 mm thick) from both explosions was reported from neighborhoods in the municipality of Irosin.
Fourpeaked | United States | 58.77°N, 153.672°W | Elevation 2105 m
The AVO reported that earthquake activity and gas emissions continued at Fourpeaked during 14-20 October. Steam-and-gas plumes rising from a location near the summit were visible on a recently installed web camera.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
Seismic data and satellite observations reported by KVERT indicated that moderate ash eruptions from Karymsky continued during 14-20 October. Weak local shallow earthquakes occurred at a rate of 100-290 per day. Ash explosions that were thought to have risen to about 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. drifted E on 17-19 October. A thermal anomaly from the volcanic crater was noted on 13, 15, and 17-19 October. Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 23 October an ash plume rose to 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 18-24 October, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole and Beehive vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Summit inflation S of Halema'uma'u caldera continued. Weak incandescence was visible on the Pulama pali during 18-19 October. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o remained at a typical moderate level.
Metis Shoal | Tonga Islands | 19.18°S, 174.87°W | Elevation 43 m
Further information obtained regarding the floating pumice rafts between Tonga and Fiji indicated that the source was Metis Shoal. Mariners in the region were being informed of this activity in early September via "Rag of the Air" radio broadcasts from Fiji. The earliest report found to this point comes from a boat with callsign KB1LSY, noting that "thick pumice" slowed them for 30 minutes during the early morning hours of 28 August as they were approaching the northern islands of the Lau Group in Fiji, about 500 km NW of Metis Shoal. By 15 October yachts sailing between Tonga and Fiji reported no remaining pumice.
Poas | Costa Rica | 10.2°N, 84.233°W | Elevation 2708 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that during September, Laguna Caliente, a summit lake of Poás, was mostly gray in color and produced gas columns that reached the crater rim. The level of the lake had dropped 5 cm with respect to August measurements and had a temperature of 46 degrees Celsius. On 25 October, a phreatic eruption produced a plume that drifted 12 km SW of the crater. Fumarolic activity from a pyroclastic cone on the floor of the crater produced gas plumes that drifted W and SW. New points of gas discharge were noted from the crater floor, the SE and NE crater walls, the N terrace, and the NE edge of the crater.
Rabaul | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) | 4.271°S, 152.203°E | Elevation 688 m
The RVO reported that a few Vulcanian eruptions from Rabaul occurred on 18 October and produced ash plumes to 1 km (3,300 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported from E Rabaul town. Seismicity was at background levels and the rate of ground deformation was low.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
Sangay | Ecuador | 2.005°S, 78.341°W | Elevation 5286 m
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.757°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3745 m
According to the Washington VAAC, a series of minor emissions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 18 October was visible on satellite imagery. The small plumes of gas and light ash drifted W.
Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 8.108°S, 112.922°E | Elevation 3657 m
Soufriere Hills | Montserrat | 16.72°N, 62.18°W | Elevation 915 m
During 13-20 October, lava-dome growth at Soufrière Hills continued and was concentrated on the NE part of the edifice. A new E-facing shear lobe with a smooth, curved back enlarged during the reporting period. Rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows originating from the active lobe affected the NE flank. On a few occasions, pyroclastic flows from the N flank spilled over Farrel's wall (the crater rim). The vent above Gage's wall was less active compared to the previous reporting period. A vent S of the active lobe periodically produced both ash and gas. Ash fell in northern areas of the island. Heavy rainfall resulted in mudflow activity in all drainage systems.
Based on information from the MVO, pilot reports, and the Piarco MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that continuous ash and gas emissions on 18, 20, and 22-23 October produced plumes that drifted W, NW, and NE. Plumes reached altitudes of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. A hotspot was detected on satellite imagery.
St. Helens | United States | 46.2°N, 122.18°W | Elevation 2549 m
Observations and data from deformation-monitoring instruments showed that during 11-17 October the lava dome at Mount St. Helens continued to grow in the S crater and produce small rockfalls. On 22 October, a M 3.5 earthquake triggered the collapse of material from the largest of the lava-dome spines. The resulting ash plume rose to about 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and quickly dissipated to the W.
Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 29.638°N, 129.714°E | Elevation 796 m
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that during 18-19 October, emissions from Tungurahua increased in intensity and ash content and seismic tremor was continuous. During the night, lava fountains reached heights of 6 km (19,800 ft) a.s.l. and blocks rolled 800 m down the flanks. According to the Washington VAAC, a pilot reported an ash plume to an altitude of 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted NE and E and generated ashfall about 50 km E, in Puyo. According to news articles, about 300 villagers evacuated from the flanks. During 20-24 October, emissions continued and produced plumes to 7-8 km (23,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported from towns on the N, NW, W, SW, and E flanks.
Turrialba | Costa Rica | 10.025°N, 83.767°W | Elevation 3340 m
Fumarolic activity and gas discharge in and to the W of Turrialba's central crater continued throughout September. New points of gas discharge, small landslides, and accelerated vegetation die-off were noted from various locations within the crater.
Ubinas | Peru | 16.355°S, 70.903°W | Elevation 5672 m
Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 17, 19, 21, and 23-24 October. The plumes rose to 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, SW, E, and N.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ahyi||Fuego||Little Sitkin||San Vicente|
|Antuco||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semisopochnoi|
|Azul, Cerro||Hokkaido-Komagatake||Metis Shoal||Soputan|
|Azumayama||Home Reef||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Balbi||Hudson, Cerro||Momotombo||Soufriere Hills|
|Bamus||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufriere St. Vincent|
|Banda Api||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Barren Island||Ijen||Mutnovsky||St. Helens|
|Bezymianny||Iliwerung||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Callaqui||Kaba||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kambalny||Nyiragongo||Talang|
|Chiles-Cerro Negro||Kasatochi||Palena Volcanic Group||Telica|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Katla||Paluweh||Tenerife|
|Copahue||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchon-Peteroa||Toliman|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Unknown Source|
|Ekarma||Kuchinoerabujima||Rincon de la Vieja||White Island|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Langila||Ruapehu||Zavodovski|
|Eyjafjallajokull||Lanin||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zhupanovsky|
|Fogo||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Sakar|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotobi||San Cristobal|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)
ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)
OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)