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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 31 July-6 August 2019.


















 Activity for the week of 31 July-6 August 2019

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Awu Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) New
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) New
Semisopochnoi United States New
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) New
Tangkubanparahu Western Java (Indonesia) New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New
Veniaminof United States New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Chiles-Cerro Negro Colombia-Ecuador Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kerinci Indonesia Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Krakatau Indonesia Ongoing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Nevados de Chillan Chile Ongoing
Nyamuragira DR Congo Ongoing
Nyiragongo DR Congo Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Sangeang Api Indonesia Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Villarrica Chile Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Awu  | Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)  | 3.689°N, 125.447°E  | Elevation 1318 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 August an ash plume from Awu was visible in satellite images rising to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

PVMBG reported that beginning at 1858 on 20 July incandescent avalanches of material from Karangetang’s Main Crater traveled as far as 1 km W down the Pangi and Kinali drainages. By 22 July incandescent material had traveled another 500 m down the same drainages, and 1 km down the Nanitu and Beha drainages. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30-31 July intermittent discrete ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, and continuous ash emissions rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly was visible. On 5 August ash plumes rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E; a thermal anomaly was again visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Semisopochnoi  | United States  | 51.93°N, 179.58°E  | Elevation 1221 m

AVO reported that during 31 July-6 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of weak, continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. Satellite images were mostly cloudy, though a possible steam plume was visible during 5-6 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that satellite images of Shishaldin acquired on 28 July showed a small spatter cone with lava flows in the summit crater. During 31 July-6 August continuous weak tremor was recorded by the seismic network and elevated surface temperatures were sometimes visible in satellite images. A small steam plume was observed in a few satellite and web camera images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Tangkubanparahu  | Western Java (Indonesia)  | 6.77°S, 107.6°E  | Elevation 2084 m

PVMBG reported that an eruption at Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater, recorded at 2046 on 1 August, generated a dense black ash-and-sediment-laden plume that rose about 180 m from the bottom of the crater, and light-colored ash plumes mixed with water vapor that rose 200 m and drifted N and NE. The event lasted 11 minutes and 23 seconds based on seismic data. Ash and sediment fell in areas around the crater. Four eruptive events were recorded during the morning of 2 August, though ash emissions were not visually observed. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). A period of continuous ash emissions was recorded during 2-4 August.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

RVO reported that during 1-2 August white-to-grayish vapor plumes rose from Ulawun’s summit crater and drifted NW. Incandescence from the summit crater was visible at night and jetting noises were audible for a short interval. RSAM values fluctuated but peaked at high levels. During the night of 2-3 August crater incandescence strengthened and roaring noises became louder around 0400. An eruption began between 0430 and 0500 on 3 August; booming noises commenced around 0445. By 0600 dense light-gray ash emissions were drifting NW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Ulamona Mission. Ash emissions continued through the day and grew from light to dark gray with time. The eruption intensified at 1900 and a lava fountain rose more than 100 m above the crater rim. A Plinian ash plume rose 19 km and drifted W and SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind such as Navo and Kabaya, and as far as Kimbe Town. The Darwin VAAC reported that the ash plume expanded radially and reached the stratosphere, rising to 19.2 km (63,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume then detached and drifted S and then SE.

The Alert Level was raised to Stage 3 (the second highest level on a four-stage scale). The areas most affected by ash and scoria fall were between Navo (W) and Saltamana Estate (NW). Two classrooms at the Navo Primary School and a church in Navo collapsed from the weight of the ash and scoria; one of the classroom roofs had already partially collapsed during the 26 June eruption. Evacuees in tents as a result of the 26 June eruption reported damage. Rabaul town (E) also reported ashfall. Seismicity declined rapidly within two hours of the event, though continued to fluctuate at moderate levels. According to a news source flights in and out of Hoskins airport in Port Moresby were cancelled on 4 August due to tephra fall. The Alert Level was lowered to Stage 1. Small amounts of white and gray vapor were emitted from the summit crater during 4-6 August.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Radio New Zealand, Papua New Guinea Post-Courier Online



Volcano index photo  Veniaminof  | United States  | 56.17°N, 159.38°W  | Elevation 2507 m

Low-level tremor at Veniaminof coincided with a pilot observation of a steam plume at 1230 on 1 August, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. On 2 August AVO noted that tremor had subsided, though low-level seismicity persisted at least through 6 August. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. A small steam plume was also visible on 3 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 30 July-5 August very small eruptive events were detected at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano), though none of them were explosive. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible in webcams at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that increased eruptive activity at Asosan that began on 28 July continued at least through 5 August. Volcanologists confirmed that high-temperature, gray-white plumes rose from the center of Nakadake Crater during fieldwork conducted on 31 July. Grayish white plumes rose 1.3 km and 1.5 km above the crater rim on 1 and 5 August, respectively. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Chiles-Cerro Negro  | Colombia-Ecuador  | 0.817°N, 77.938°W  | Elevation 4698 m

Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IGEPN) and the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Pasto del Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC OVSP) jointly reported that the most recent seismic swarm below Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes began in September 2018 and continued at least through 1 August. The swarm has consisted of 147,000 earthquakes, recorded up to the time of the report publication, mostly with magnitudes less than 3.6. Notably, at least 91 very-long-period earthquakes and 89 long-period earthquakes have been detected, indicative of a magmatic body at depth. In addition, at 0738 on 25 July a M4 earthquake was located 4 km below the summit of Chiles and felt by residents. About 850 volcano-tectonic events were recorded during 25-28 July.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 July-6 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly N and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25-26 and 29 July, and 1 August, that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

INGV reported that on 25 July Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) periodically emitted gas and ash. At 0630 on 27 July the seismic network detected a sudden increase in tremor amplitude, and at 0915 a new fissure opened on the S flank of NSEC. Explosive activity at the crater intensified at 1020 and a dense, ash-rich plume rose to 4.5-5 km a.s.l. and drifted E. A thin layer of ash was deposited in Giarre, Riposto and Torre Archirafi. Lava emerged from the S part of the new fissure and traveled SW and S; by 1235 the longest part of the flow had reached 2,850 m elevation and by 1330 it had reached 2,600 m elevation. Beginning at 1321 a sequence of particularly strong explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 7.5 km a.s.l. Explosive activity decreased around 0440 on 28 July, and lava effused from the vent at a lower rate. Starting at 0846 the Northeast Crater (NEC) occasionally emitted small plumes of red-brown ash. Explosive and effusive activity at NSEC ceased that evening. Activity during 29 July-4 August consisted of a few episodes of ash emissions at Bocca Nuova Crater and NEC.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that on 26 July a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images along with an ash plume drifting 60 km SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kerinci  | Indonesia  | 1.697°S, 101.264°E  | Elevation 3800 m

PVMBG reported that at 1248 on 31 July a gray ash emission from Kerinci rose around 800 m above the summit and drifted E and NE according to a ground observer. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images during 26, 29, and 31 July, and 1 August. An ash emission was visible in webcam images on 1 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 813 m

PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded 10 eruptive events during 29 July-4 August. The events were not followed by visible emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

PVMBG reported that during 29 July-4 August the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating a total of four block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 31 July and 4 August. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Nevados de Chillan  | Chile  | 36.868°S, 71.378°W  | Elevation 3180 m

On 6 August ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater increased in the previous few days, characterized by an increase in the size and occurrence of explosions. Specifically, there were 129 explosive events recorded since 3 August. Dense gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and ejected material onto the flanks. Crater incandescence was visible at night. A lahar traveled 1.5 km NNE. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Nyamuragira  | DR Congo  | 1.408°S, 29.2°E  | Elevation 3058 m

The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that collapses of Nyamuragira’s inner crater walls observed in May 2019 continued during 1-31 July. Lava fountaining from a small cone was visible.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)



Volcano index photo  Nyiragongo  | DR Congo  | 1.52°S, 29.25°E  | Elevation 3470 m

The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-31 July the level Nyiragongo’s lava lake had dropped, making it not visible in the daytime. Incandescence from the lake continued to be visible at night. Activity also declined at a small eruptive cone that formed in the crater in 2014.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of 13 low-to-medium intensity explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 22-28 July. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.3 km above the crater rim and drifted NE, E, and SE. There were eight thermal anomalies identified in satellite data. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius. Single explosions on 1 and 5 August produced an ash plume that drifted more than 30 km E and W, respectively.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Sangeang Api  | Indonesia  | 8.2°S, 119.07°E  | Elevation 1949 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 July-3 August ash plumes from Sangeang Api were identified in satellite images rising to 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 26 July-2 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

JMA reported that at 2331 on 1 August an explosion at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater ejected blocks 400 m from the crater. Weather clouds prevented visual confirmation of an ash plume. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased on 4 August and four explosions were recorded on 5 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6 August the Alert Level for Villarrica was raised to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale, reflecting the recent increase in minor Strombolian activity ejecting spatter onto the flanks near the rim during the past weeks.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



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 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)