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Report on Krakatau (Indonesia) — 5 October-11 October 2011

Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5 October-11 October 2011
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2011. Report on Krakatau (Indonesia). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5 October-11 October 2011. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

Volcano Profile |  Weekly Report (5 October-11 October 2011)


Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 813 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


On 8 October, a news article stated that activity at Anak Krakatau was increasing; the number of seismic events was 5,204 on 6 October, 5,543 on 7 October, and 5,883 on 8 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors and residents were not permitted to approach the volcano within a 2-km radius.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Source: The Jakarta Post