Kaba

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 3.52°S
  • 102.62°E

  • 1952 m
    6403 ft

  • 261220
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 13 July-19 July 2011


On 14 July CVGHM reported that, since the Alert Level for Kaba was raised on 20 October 2009, seismicity had fluctuated but decreased overall. During September 2009-May 2011, when weather permitted, white plumes were seen rising 25-300 m above the crater rim, and during June-July 2011 diffuse white plumes rose 50 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 July.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: September 2009 (BGVN 34:09)


Increased seismicity and whitish vapor emissions

Deep volcanic earthquakes, seismic tremor, and five small explosions with corresponding ash emission were reported from Kaba in August 2000 (BGVN 25:11). Since then, Kaba has been quiet, but even in its normal state it almost always emits whitish plumes 25-100 m high.

On 20 October 2009, the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported that seismic activity from Kaba increased in August and remained elevated into September and October. Inflation was also detected. When weather permitted, diffuse white plumes were seen rising ~ 25-50 m above the summit crater complex and drifting E. Based on the deformation and increased seismicity, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

From January through August 2009, the frequency of deep volcanic earthquakes averaged 85 events per month, but in August the number of events rose to 257 per month. During August-September, whitish plumes remained similar to September-October. In September seismicity fluctuated but tended to increase. Earthquakes and total tremors recorded at Kaba's monitoring post are shown in table 2.

Table 2. Summary of Kaba seismic data recorded during 12 September-20 October 2009. Courtesy of CVGHM.

    Dates (2009)                 Deep volcanic earthquakes (Count, Characteristics)
                                 Shallow volcanic earthquakes (Count, Characteristics)
       Notes

    Beginning on 12 September    343
                                  55

    1-17 October                 253. Max. amplitudes of 1-18 mm; S-wave minus P-wave arrival
                                      times ("S-P") of 0.2-3.5 s with signals lasting 4-35 s.
                                 271. Max. amplitudes 0.5-15 mm, durations of 2.5-11 s.

    18 October                    68. Max. amplitude of 1-19 mm; S-P times of 0.2-3 s, and a
                                      duration of 3.5-47 s.
                                  67. Max. amplitudes 0.8-16 mm, durations of 2.5-13 s.

    19 October                    50. Max. amplitudes of 0.5-18 mm; S-P 0.5-2 s, and a duration
                                      of 2-15 s.
                                 127. Max. amplitudes 0.5-15 mm, durations of 2.5-10 s.
       Volcanic tremor registered during 0640-0900 local time; max. amplitudes 0.5-2 mm.

    20 October                    29. Max. amplitudes of 0.5-18 mm; S-P 0.5-2 seconds and a
                                      duration of 2-15 s.
                                  21. Max. amplitudes 0.5-15 mm, durations of 2.5-10 s.
       Continuous tremor with amplitudes of 1-7 mm; the most prevalent amplitudes 1-3 mm. During
       clear weather, whitish plumes rose ~ 25 m.

Deformation measurements taken using an EDM (electronic distance measurement) method were as follows: Biring station, shorter by 10 cm; Voelsang station, longer by 0.4 cm; and Kaba station, shorter by 2 cm.

Measurements of the crater water temperature on 15 October showed a reading of 72°C, with a pH of 3.24. The sulfurous and associated solfatara areas recorded a temperature of around 106-107°C. There was no other activity in the area of the crater.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/).

Index of Weekly Reports


2011: July
2009: October

Weekly Reports


13 July-19 July 2011

On 14 July CVGHM reported that, since the Alert Level for Kaba was raised on 20 October 2009, seismicity had fluctuated but decreased overall. During September 2009-May 2011, when weather permitted, white plumes were seen rising 25-300 m above the crater rim, and during June-July 2011 diffuse white plumes rose 50 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 July.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


14 October-20 October 2009

On 20 October, CVGHM reported that seismic activity from Kaba increased in August and remained elevated in September and October. Inflation was also detected. When weather permitted, diffuse white plumes were seen rising 25-50 m above the crater rim and drifting E. Based on the deformation and increased seismicity, CVGHN raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

12/1979 (SEAN 04:12) Only solfataric activity accompanies 17 December earthquake

11/2000 (BGVN 25:11) Explosions and light gray ash

09/2009 (BGVN 34:09) Increased seismicity and whitish vapor emissions




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


12/1979 (SEAN 04:12) Only solfataric activity accompanies 17 December earthquake

Some press reports indicated that increased activity from Kaba and neighboring Bukitdaun volcanoes preceded a destructive 17 December earthquake. Adjat Sudradjat and Suparto Siswowidjoyo report that no unusual volcanic activity took place. Thick white solfataric vapor was emitted from two craters (Kaba Lama and Kaba Besar) on Kaba, which last erupted in 1956. Temperatures of solfataras and a crater lake at Kaba were measured on several occasions in the past nine years (table 1). Active fumaroles are present on Bukitdaun, but the volcano has not erupted in historic time.

Table 1. Temperatures (in °C) of solfataras and a crater lake at Kaba, 1971, 1976, and 1978. Courtesy of VSI.

    Area             1971       1976      1978

    Solfataras       110°C      156°C     123°C
    Crater Lake       45°C       --        34°C

Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat, VSI; Suparto S., Java and Sumatra Observatory, VSI.
Download or Cite this Report

11/2000 (BGVN 25:11) Explosions and light gray ash

This report covers activity at Kaba documented by the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) during August 2000. Deep volcanic earthquakes dominated seismicity during the second week of August. On 17 August seismographs recorded harmonic tremor with a maximum amplitude of 14 mm. Visual observations were hindered by clouds around the summit until the third week of the month. During 22-28 August, conditions were clear and a light gray ash plume rose 200 m above the summit. Five small explosion earthquakes were registered on 26-27 August, corresponding to the same number of observed ash emissions. By the end of August, the number of deep volcanic earthquakes decreased. Kaba remained at a hazard status of 2 (on a scale of 1-4) throughout the month.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
Download or Cite this Report

09/2009 (BGVN 34:09) Increased seismicity and whitish vapor emissions

Deep volcanic earthquakes, seismic tremor, and five small explosions with corresponding ash emission were reported from Kaba in August 2000 (BGVN 25:11). Since then, Kaba has been quiet, but even in its normal state it almost always emits whitish plumes 25-100 m high.

On 20 October 2009, the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported that seismic activity from Kaba increased in August and remained elevated into September and October. Inflation was also detected. When weather permitted, diffuse white plumes were seen rising ~ 25-50 m above the summit crater complex and drifting E. Based on the deformation and increased seismicity, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

From January through August 2009, the frequency of deep volcanic earthquakes averaged 85 events per month, but in August the number of events rose to 257 per month. During August-September, whitish plumes remained similar to September-October. In September seismicity fluctuated but tended to increase. Earthquakes and total tremors recorded at Kaba's monitoring post are shown in table 2.

Table 2. Summary of Kaba seismic data recorded during 12 September-20 October 2009. Courtesy of CVGHM.

    Dates (2009)                 Deep volcanic earthquakes (Count, Characteristics)
                                 Shallow volcanic earthquakes (Count, Characteristics)
       Notes

    Beginning on 12 September    343
                                  55

    1-17 October                 253. Max. amplitudes of 1-18 mm; S-wave minus P-wave arrival
                                      times ("S-P") of 0.2-3.5 s with signals lasting 4-35 s.
                                 271. Max. amplitudes 0.5-15 mm, durations of 2.5-11 s.

    18 October                    68. Max. amplitude of 1-19 mm; S-P times of 0.2-3 s, and a
                                      duration of 3.5-47 s.
                                  67. Max. amplitudes 0.8-16 mm, durations of 2.5-13 s.

    19 October                    50. Max. amplitudes of 0.5-18 mm; S-P 0.5-2 s, and a duration
                                      of 2-15 s.
                                 127. Max. amplitudes 0.5-15 mm, durations of 2.5-10 s.
       Volcanic tremor registered during 0640-0900 local time; max. amplitudes 0.5-2 mm.

    20 October                    29. Max. amplitudes of 0.5-18 mm; S-P 0.5-2 seconds and a
                                      duration of 2-15 s.
                                  21. Max. amplitudes 0.5-15 mm, durations of 2.5-10 s.
       Continuous tremor with amplitudes of 1-7 mm; the most prevalent amplitudes 1-3 mm. During
       clear weather, whitish plumes rose ~ 25 m.

Deformation measurements taken using an EDM (electronic distance measurement) method were as follows: Biring station, shorter by 10 cm; Voelsang station, longer by 0.4 cm; and Kaba station, shorter by 2 cm.

Measurements of the crater water temperature on 15 October showed a reading of 72°C, with a pH of 3.24. The sulfurous and associated solfatara areas recorded a temperature of around 106-107°C. There was no other activity in the area of the crater.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/).
Download or Cite this Report

Kaba, a twin volcano with Mount Hitam, has an elongated summit crater complex dominated by three large historically active craters trending ENE from the summit to the upper NE flank. The SW-most crater of 1952-m-high Gunung Kaba, Kawah Lama, is the largest. Most historical eruptions have affected only the summit region of the volcano. They mostly originated from the central summit craters, although the upper-NE flank crater Kawah Vogelsang also produced explosions during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2000 Aug 22 (?) 2000 Aug 27 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1956 Mar 22 1956 Mar 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1952 Apr 1 1952 Apr 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1950 Mar 1951 Apr Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kaba Vogelsang
1939 Nov 19 1941 Mar 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kaba Baru, Kaba Lama
[ 1918 Aug 9 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1907 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kaba Baru
1873 1892 Nov 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kaba Volgelsang and Kaba Baru
1868 Oct 1869 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kaba Baru ? and Kaba Vogelsang
1853 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1838 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1834 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1833 Nov 24 1833 Nov 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Kaaba

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hitim Stratovolcano

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Baru, Kaba
    Kecil, Kaba
    Ketjil, Kaba
Crater 1865 m
Lama, Kaba
    Besar, Kaba
Crater 1952 m
Vogelsang, Kaba
    Pendapuran, Kaba
    Penjeluang, Kaba
    Penyeluang, Kaba
    Vogelenzang
Crater 1736 m
Steam rises from Kaba Kecil, the middle of three summit craters on Kaba volcano, viewed from the ENE at Vogelsang Peak on the upper NNE flank. The peaks Bukit Biring at the left and Bukit Kaba at the right flank Kaba Kecil crater. The far wall of Kaba Lama crater, the largest at Kaba volcano, forms the center horizon.

Photo by Deddy Rochendi, 1981 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Kaba is a low, elongated volcano with a summit containing three historically active craters that decrease in size towards the ENE. The central crater seen in this photo has been the source of most historical eruptions, although the two other craters, one of which is located on the upper ENE flank, have also been active. Small lakes have formed in all craters at various times.

Photo by Deddy Rochendi, 1981 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Fumaroles rise from the floor and margins of Kawah Besar, a small crater occupying Kaba Lama, the largest and westernmost of three major craters at the summit of Kaba volcano. A shallow lake occupies the floor of Kaba Besar. The rim of 1.2-km-wide Kaba Lama forms the horizon.

Photo by Deddy Rochendi, 1981 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An eruption from 1950 to 1951 formed a new crater, seen in the foreground, within the larger Kaba Vogelsang crater on the upper ENE flank of Kaba volcano. The eruption began in March 1950 and lasted until April of the following year. An ash eruption on March 7, 1951, destroyed forests on the volcano, and on March 26 incandescent bombs were ejected.

Photo by Deddy Rochendi, 1981 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Steam clouds pour from fumaroles occupying the floor of Kaba Lama, the largest of the three major summit craters of Kaba volcano. A shallow lake, one of several in the Kaba crater complex, occupies the crater floor.

Anonymous photo, 1991.
Gunung Kaba, rising above farmlands at Pematang Danau, has three large historically active craters trending ENE from the summit to the upper NE flank. The SW-most crater of Gunung Kaba is the largest. Most historical activity has consisted of explosive eruptions that affected only the summit region of the volcano. They originated from the central summit craters, although the upper-NE flank crater Kawah Vogelsang also produced explosions during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Photo by Setiadarma, 1989 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Pyroclastic cone

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
278
15,352
333,750
2,608,259

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Kaba Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.