Gede-Pangrango

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  • Indonesia
  • Indonesia
  • Stratovolcano(es)
  • 1957 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 6.77°S
  • 106.965°E

  • 3008 m
    9866 ft

  • 263060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: June 1991 (BGVN 16:06) Cite this Report


Seismicity declines without eruption after April/May swarm

High seismicity associated with the 29 April-1 May swarm activity has continuously declined since late May (figure 1). An average of one volcanic earthquake/day was recorded in June, compared to 43/day in April and 5/day in May. No surface activity was observed.

Figure 1. Daily number of earthquakes at Gede, April-May 1991. Courtesy of VSI.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Gede-Pangrango.

Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

04/1991 (BGVN 16:04) Earthquake swarm

05/1991 (BGVN 16:05) Brief earthquake swarm

06/1991 (BGVN 16:06) Seismicity declines without eruption after April/May swarm




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


April 1991 (BGVN 16:04) Cite this Report


Earthquake swarm

A swarm of 100 volcanic earthquakes (40 deep and 60 shallow) was recorded on 29 April, an increase from the previous daily average of 10-15 events. Tectonic earthquakes averaged 1-2/day. Seismicity had been increasing since February. No surface activity was observed.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


May 1991 (BGVN 16:05) Cite this Report


Brief earthquake swarm

Three shocks were felt (intensities I-III) on 30 April. Seismicity later returned to normal levels (10-15 events/day) during the second week of May (table 1).

Table 1. Number of earthquakes at Gede, May 1991. Courtesy of VSI.

    May 1991
    Seismicity           1-4    5-11    12-18    19-25    26-31

    Deep Volcanic (VT)    22     197       8       23        9
    Shallow Volcanic      51     635      16        8        8
    Tectonic              47       9      20        9       13

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


June 1991 (BGVN 16:06) Cite this Report


Seismicity declines without eruption after April/May swarm

High seismicity associated with the 29 April-1 May swarm activity has continuously declined since late May (figure 1). An average of one volcanic earthquake/day was recorded in June, compared to 43/day in April and 5/day in May. No surface activity was observed.

Figure 1. Daily number of earthquakes at Gede, April-May 1991. Courtesy of VSI.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
263060

1957 CE

3008 m / 9866 ft

6.77°S
106.965°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano(es)
Caldera(s)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
2,500
154,390
2,315,469
40,640,105

Geological Summary

Gede volcano is one of the most prominent in western Java, forming a twin volcano with Pangrango volcano to the NW. The major cities of Cianjur, Sukabumi, and Bogor are situated below the volcanic complex to the E, S, and NW, respectively. Gunung Pangrango, constructed over the NE rim of a 3 x 5 km caldera, forms the high point of the complex at just over 3000 m elevation. Many lava flows are visible on the flanks of the younger Gunung Gede, including some that may have been erupted in historical time. The steep-walled summit crater has migrated about 1 km NNW over time. Two large debris-avalanche deposits on its flanks, one of which underlies the city of Cianjur, record previous large-scale collapses. Historical activity, recorded since the 16th century, typically consists of small explosive eruptions of short duration.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Situmorang T, Hadisantono R D, 1992. Geologic map of Gede volcano, Cianjur, West Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 geol map.

Taverne N J M, 1926. Vulkanstudien op Java. Vulk Meded, 7: 1-132.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1957 Mar 13 1957 Mar 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1956 Apr 28 1956 Apr 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1955 Jul 21 ] [ 1955 Aug 2 ] Uncertain 1  
1948 Nov 15 1949 Feb 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kawah Leutik (Kawah Ratu)
1947 Sep 2 1948 Jan 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kawah Ratu?, Kawah Lanang
1909 May 2 1909 May 2 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1899 May 1 1899 May 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1891 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1889 May 8 (in or before) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1888 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1887 Oct 22 1887 Oct 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1886 Jun 10 1886 Aug 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1885 Jan ] [ 1885 Feb ] Uncertain 2  
1870 Aug 1870 Oct 3 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1866 Sep 18 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1853 Mar 14 1853 Mar 14 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1852 May 28 1852 May 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1848 May 8 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1847 Oct 17 1847 Oct 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1845 Jan 23 1845 Mar 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1843 Jul 28 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1840 Nov 12 1840 Dec 11 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1839 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1832 Aug 29 1832 Aug 29 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1761 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1747 1748 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Gede
    Gedeh
Stratovolcano 2899 m 6° 47' 54" S 106° 59' 30" E
Pangrango
    Pangerango
Stratovolcano 3008 m 6° 46' 13" S 106° 57' 54" E

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Baru Crater
Gumuruh Crater 2927 m
Lanang Crater 2800 m
Leutik, Kawah Crater
Ratu Crater 2800 m
Sela Crater 2709 m
Wadon Crater 2600 m

Photo Gallery


Gede volcano, seen here from the NE, is one of the most prominent in western Java, forming a twin volcano with Gunung Pangrango. Many lava flows are visible on its flanks, including some that may have been erupted in historical time. The steep-walled summit crater has migrated about 1 km to the NNW over time. Two large debris-avalanche deposits on its flanks record previous large-scale collapses of Gede volcano.

Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1990 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
A thick lava flow is truncated by the summit crater of Gede volcano. The 1-km-wide summit crater of Gede has migrated to the NNW, and contains several smaller craters.

Photo by Sunaman (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An aerial view from the NE shows the summit crater (right) of Gede volcano. The summit cone was constructed within an older crater, whose western rim forms the peak at the left. The sparsely vegetated moat area between the two cones is known as Alun-Alun.

Photo from Taverne, 1926, "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An aerial photo shows the partially forested summit of Gunung Gede volcano from the east. The two left-hand dashed lines show the locations of Kawah Ratu (top) and Kawah Lanang craters (bottom), and the right-hand dashed line marks the site of Kawah Wadon crater. The slopes of Gunung Pangrango, a twin volcano of Gede, appear at the upper right.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The steep-walled summit crater (right) of Gede cuts the broad summit of the volcano. Gunung Gede is one of the most prominent volcanoes in western Java, forming a twin volcano with Pangrango volcano to the NW. Many lava flows are visible on the flanks of the younger Gunung Gede, including some that may have been erupted in historical time. Historical activity, recorded since the 16th century, typically consists of small explosive eruptions of short duration.

Photo by Cahya Patria, 2004 (Centre of Volcanology & Geological Hazard Mitigation, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Gede-Pangrango Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.