Tongkoko

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 1.52°N
  • 125.2°E

  • 1149 m
    3769 ft

  • 266130
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 21 April-27 April 2010 Cite this Report


Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 April a possible ash plume from Tongkoko rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. [Note: The Darwin VAAC later stated that, according to CVGHM, the plume was caused by a fire and not an eruption.]

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: September 2003 (BGVN 28:09) Cite this Report


Volcanic earthquakes during October 2002-January 2003

The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reported deep volcanic and A-type earthquakes at Tongkoko (also known as Tangkoko) over the period 7 October-24 November 2002 and more deep-volcanic events during 23 December 2002-19 January 2003 (table 1). The earthquakes, which began in May 2002, were recorded following relocation of an observatory post to Wainenet village in the Bitung area. The temperature at Batu Angus hot spring on 10 October 2002 was 70-73°C. While no visible activity has been observed, the hazard status was raised to Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 24 October 2002 as a result of the increased seismicity. The last recorded activity at Tongkoko consisted of flank lava flows and lava dome extrusion in 1880.

Table 1. Earthquakes recorded at Tongkoko, 7 October 2002-19 January 2003. In addition, one shallow volcanic event was recorded during 13-19 January 2003, and single B-type earthquakes each occurred during 21-27 October and 4-10 November 2002. Courtesy of VSI.

    Date (2002-03)     Deep      A-type     Tectonic
                     Volcanic

    07 Oct-13 Oct        4         --          --
    14 Oct-20 Oct       --         12          23
    21 Oct-27 Oct       --          9          34
    28 Oct-03 Nov       --         17          19
    04 Nov-10 Nov       --          9          38
    11 Nov-18 Nov       --          2          37
    19 Nov-24 Nov       --          2          25
    23 Dec-29 Dec        5         --          16
    06 Jan-12 Jan       11         --          21
    13 Jan-19 Jan        5         --          28

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Hetty Triastuty, Nia Haerani, and Suswati, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

Weekly Reports - Index


2010: April
2002: October


21 April-27 April 2010 Cite this Report


Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 April a possible ash plume from Tongkoko rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. [Note: The Darwin VAAC later stated that, according to CVGHM, the plume was caused by a fire and not an eruption.]

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 October-5 November 2002 Cite this Report


An increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes at Tongkoko since 24 October led VSI to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2. The number of deep volcanic earthquakes decreased in comparison to the previous week. VSI reported that the increased number of shallow volcanic earthquakes indicated that seismicity was migrating to the surface.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


16 October-22 October 2002 Cite this Report


Relocation of an observatory to the area near Tongkoko provided scientists with previously unavailable seismic data. During 7-14 October, four deep-volcanic events were recorded at Tongkoko. This is significant because the volcano has been in repose for almost 122 years. Tongkoko was at Alert Level 1 (on a scale of 1-4) (note: VSI later corrected Alert Level from 2).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

09/2003 (BGVN 28:09) Volcanic earthquakes during October 2002-January 2003




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


September 2003 (BGVN 28:09) Cite this Report


Volcanic earthquakes during October 2002-January 2003

The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reported deep volcanic and A-type earthquakes at Tongkoko (also known as Tangkoko) over the period 7 October-24 November 2002 and more deep-volcanic events during 23 December 2002-19 January 2003 (table 1). The earthquakes, which began in May 2002, were recorded following relocation of an observatory post to Wainenet village in the Bitung area. The temperature at Batu Angus hot spring on 10 October 2002 was 70-73°C. While no visible activity has been observed, the hazard status was raised to Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 24 October 2002 as a result of the increased seismicity. The last recorded activity at Tongkoko consisted of flank lava flows and lava dome extrusion in 1880.

Table 1. Earthquakes recorded at Tongkoko, 7 October 2002-19 January 2003. In addition, one shallow volcanic event was recorded during 13-19 January 2003, and single B-type earthquakes each occurred during 21-27 October and 4-10 November 2002. Courtesy of VSI.

    Date (2002-03)     Deep      A-type     Tectonic
                     Volcanic

    07 Oct-13 Oct        4         --          --
    14 Oct-20 Oct       --         12          23
    21 Oct-27 Oct       --          9          34
    28 Oct-03 Nov       --         17          19
    04 Nov-10 Nov       --          9          38
    11 Nov-18 Nov       --          2          37
    19 Nov-24 Nov       --          2          25
    23 Dec-29 Dec        5         --          16
    06 Jan-12 Jan       11         --          21
    13 Jan-19 Jan        5         --          28

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Hetty Triastuty, Nia Haerani, and Suswati, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
266130

1880 CE

1149 m / 3769 ft

1.52°N
125.2°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Dacite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
445
57,792
135,761
1,227,998

Geological Summary

The NE-most volcano on the island of Sulawesi, Tongkoko (also known as Tangkoko) has a summit that is elongated in a NW-SE direction with a large deep crater that in 1801 contained a cone surrounded by lake water. The slightly higher Dua Saudara stratovolcano is located only 3 km to the SW of Tongkoko, and along with Tongkoko, forms the most prominent features of Gunung Dua Saudara National Park, a noted wildlife preserve. Eruptions occurred from the summit crater of Tongkoko in the 17th century and in 1801. The prominent, flat-topped lava dome Batu Angus formed on the E flank in 1801, and along with an adjacent E-flank vent has been the source of all subsequent eruptions.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Morrice M G, Jezek P A, Gill J B, Whitford D J, Monoarfa M, 1983. An introduction to the Sangihe arc: volcanism accompanying arc-arc collision in the Molucca Sea, Indonesia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 19: 135-165.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Tatsumi Y, Murasaki M, Arsadi E M, Nohda S, 1991. Geochemistry of Quaternary lavas from NE Sulawesi: transfer of subduction components into the mantle wedge. Contr Mineral Petr, 107: 137-149.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1880 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Batu Angus
1843 1846 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Batu Angus
1821 Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Batu Angus Baru
1801 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and east flank (Batu Angus)
1694 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1683 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1680 Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Tonkoko | Tokoko | Tangkoko

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Dua Saudara Stratovolcano 1351 m

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Angus Baru, Batu Dome
Angus, Batu
    Angoes, Batoe
Dome 700 m

Photo Gallery


The 1149-m-high elongated Tongkoko volcano, seen in this composite photo from the south, rises above Bitung city and is the NE-most volcano on the island of Sulawesi. The summit of the volcano, which is elongated in a NW-SE direction, contains a large crater with a central cone. Historical eruptions have occurred since 1680 from both the summit and an east flank vent, Batu Angus. Tongkoko volcano and its neighbor Dua Saudara are the most prominent features of Gunung Dua Saudara National Park, a noted wildlife preserve.

Photo by A.R. Sumailani, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The forested summit of Tongkoko volcano at the NE tip of Sulawesi is truncated by a large elongated, 1 x 2 km wide crater that contains a central cone. In 1801 a crater lake was observed. Eruptions have occurred at Tongkoko during historical time from both summit and flank craters.

Photo by A.R. Sumailani, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The flat-topped Batu Angus lava dome formed on the east flank of Tongkoko volcano during an eruption in 1801. A lava flow traveled 2 km down the flank. The 1801 eruption also included formation of small cones at the bottom of the crater lake at the summit of the volcano.

Photo by A.R. Sumailani, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Tongkoko volcano, seen here from Lembe Island to the east, is a broad, 1149-m-high stratovolcano capped by a large summit crater. The lava dome Batu Angus, which formed in an eruption in 1801, can be seen on the east flank of the volcano in the center of the photo. Gunung Dua Saudara National Park, a noted wildlife preserve, extends from the volcanic highlands to offshore coral reefs.

Photo by Ruska Hadian (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Tongkoko Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.