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Niijima

Photo of this volcano
  • Japan
  • Japan, Taiwan, Marianas
  • Lava dome(s)
  • 886 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 34.397°N
  • 139.27°E

  • 432 m
    1417 ft

  • 284020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: July 1996 (BGVN 21:07) Citation IconCite this Report

Seismic activity increases

High seismicity around the island was recorded on 17 and 24-26 July. The largest earthquakes (M 4.0) were detected at 1250 and 1321 on 17 July.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Niijima.

Bulletin Reports - Index

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

10/1985 (SEAN 10:10) Submarine earthquake swarm

01/1992 (BGVN 17:01) Earthquake swarm but no surface changes

03/1992 (BGVN 17:03) Earthquake swarm but no surface changes evident

08/1992 (BGVN 17:08) Weak earthquake swarm

09/1992 (BGVN 17:09) Two weak seismic swarms

10/1992 (BGVN 17:10) Earthquake swarm but no surface changes evident

03/1993 (BGVN 18:03) Earthquake swarm on 23 March; no surface anomalies

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Earthquake swarms

12/1995 (BGVN 20:11) Seismic swarm on 4 December

07/1996 (BGVN 21:07) Seismic activity increases




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


October 1985 (SEAN 10:10) Citation IconCite this Report

Submarine earthquake swarm

Local seismicity increased in the sea NW of Nii-jima on 21-22 September. Residents measured no significant changes in temperatures of the island's hot springs during this period. Because epicenters were close to the island, more than 20 events were felt, the largest of magnitude [3.5 (JMA)]. Earthquake swarms are common around Nii-jima; the most recent was in August-September 1983 [when the largest event was M 4.2].

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


January 1992 (BGVN 17:01) Citation IconCite this Report

Earthquake swarm but no surface changes

An earthquake swarm was recorded on 3-4 January, centered 10 km SW of Nii-jima near Shikine-jima, a dome of the Nii-jima complex (figure 1). The largest shock, M 3.1, occurred at 0657 on 3 January. No surface anomalies were observed at the volcano or on the surrounding sea. Three weeks later, a swarm was recorded near Kozu-shima, 20 km SSW (figure 2).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Epicenter map of earthquakes near Nii-jima and Kozu-shima, January 1992. Courtesy of JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Epicenter map (top) and space/time diagram (bottom) showing seismicity around Kozu-shima and Nii-jima volcanoes, January 1991-June 1992. Courtesy of JMA.

Information Contacts: JMA.


March 1992 (BGVN 17:03) Citation IconCite this Report

Earthquake swarm but no surface changes evident

A seismic swarm recorded between 0200 and 0400 on 19 March consisted of 10 earthquakes beneath and around the island (figure 3). Several of the events were felt by island residents, the largest, M 2.5, at 0349. No surface anomalies were observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Epicenter map of earthquakes near Nii-jima, 19 March 1992. Courtesy of JMA.

Information Contacts: JMA.


August 1992 (BGVN 17:08) Citation IconCite this Report

Weak earthquake swarm

A weak earthquake swarm was detected in the sea a few kilometers E and W of the island on 28-29 August. The strongest event was M 2.3.

Information Contacts: JMA.


September 1992 (BGVN 17:09) Citation IconCite this Report

Two weak seismic swarms

Two weak earthquake swarms occurred 5 km WSW and NW of the island on 16 and 22 September. Maximum magnitudes were 3.5 and 3.1, respectively. No ocean-surface anomalies were observed.

Information Contacts: JMA.


October 1992 (BGVN 17:10) Citation IconCite this Report

Earthquake swarm but no surface changes evident

A swarm of earthquakes occurred midway between [Nii-jima and Kozu-shima] islands 17-20 October. The largest earthquake was M 5.1, at 2237 on 17 October. No ocean-surface anomalies were observed.

Information Contacts: JMA.


March 1993 (BGVN 18:03) Citation IconCite this Report

Earthquake swarm on 23 March; no surface anomalies

A weak earthquake swarm occurred 23 March in the N part of Nii-jima island. The earthquakes, M 1.9 maximum, were located both onshore and offshore. . . . No surface anomalies, onshore or offshore, were observed . . . .

Information Contacts: JMA.


August 1993 (BGVN 18:08) Citation IconCite this Report

Earthquake swarms

. . . An earthquake swarm on 9 September near Nii-jima island . . . included a M 3.7 event.

Information Contacts: JMA.


December 1995 (BGVN 20:11) Citation IconCite this Report

Seismic swarm on 4 December

On 4 December, many earthquakes occurred in and around the island, some of which were felt. The largest one was M 4.3.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan.


July 1996 (BGVN 21:07) Citation IconCite this Report

Seismic activity increases

High seismicity around the island was recorded on 17 and 24-26 July. The largest earthquakes (M 4.0) were detected at 1250 and 1321 on 17 July.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 5 Holocene eruptive periods.

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0886 Jun 29 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Mukai-yama
0856 (?) 0857 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Achi-yama
1250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Wakago tephra
4350 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Niijima-yama
5950 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Niijima.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Niijima.

Photo Gallery

Stratified phreatomagmatic deposits are exposed along a cliff on the eastern coast of Nii-jima, with flat-topped Miyazuka-yama lava dome in the background. The 11-km-long, elongated island is comprised of eight low rhyolitic lava domes that are clustered in two groups at the northern and southern ends of the island, separated by a low, flat isthmus. The Mukai-yama complex at the southern end of the island and Achi-yama lava dome at the northern end were formed during Nii-jima's only historical eruptions in the 9th century CE.

Photo by Ichio Moriya (Kanazawa University).
See title for photo information.
The rhyolitic Mukai-yama lava dome lies at the southern end of the island of Nii-jima. It was formed during a single continuous eruption in July 886 CE beginning in shallow water with the formation of a tuff ring by repeated base surges, followed by a subaerial pyroclastic cone and lava domes. The flat-topped Mukai-yama lava dome (also known as Muko-yama) marks the most recent eruptive activity on Nii-jima.

Photo by Ichio Moriya (Kanazawa University).
See title for photo information.
A spectacular sequence of pyroclastic-surge deposits are exposed in a sea cliff on Nii-jima, in the northern part of the Izu Islands of Japan. The dramatic cross-bedded layers were produced during episodic erosion and deposition by laterally moving ash clouds. The eruptions accompanied formation of a lava dome at Mukai-jima on the southern part of the island. Flat-bedded airfall deposits cap the exposure.

Photo by R.V. Fisher, 1979 (University of California Santa Barbara).
See title for photo information.
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.


Title: Computer Generated Geologic Map of Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1990
Series: No 22
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:2,000,000
Map of Computer Generated Geologic Map of Japan

Title: Japan, South Korea
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: Japan, S Korea
Year: 1988
Series: ONC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Japan, South Korea

Title: (B) Q Maps of Japan Landforms, Geol, Tect: Central
Publisher: Univ of Tokyo Press & Japan Association for Quaternary Research
Country: Japan
Year: 1987
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of (B) Q Maps of Japan Landforms, Geol, Tect: Central

Title: Historical Japan
Publisher: National Geographic Society
Country: Japan
Year: 1984
Series: National Geographic
Map Type: Geographic
Scale: 1:2,982,000
Map of Historical Japan

Title: Geol Map of Japan/ Geol Atlas
Publisher: Geol Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1982
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Geol Map of Japan/ Geol Atlas

Title: Central Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1980
Series: CIM 1:1 mil
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Central Japan

Title: The Southwest of Miyake Sima
Publisher: Maritime Safety Agency
Country: Japan
Year: 1980
Map Type: Bathymetric
Scale: 1:200,000
Map of The Southwest of Miyake Sima

Title: Central Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1980
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Central Japan

Title: Central Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1980
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Central Japan

Title: Geological Map of Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1978
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Geological Map of Japan

Title: Geological Map of Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1978
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Geological Map of Japan

Title: Distribution Map of Hot Springs in Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1975
Series: 1:2,000,000
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:2,000,000
Map of Distribution Map of Hot Springs in Japan

Title: (Japanese) Geol map of Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1974
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of (Japanese) Geol map of Japan

Title: Landform Classification
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown (Land)
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Landform Classification

Title: Land Use
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown (Land)
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Land Use

Title: Population Distribution
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Population Distribution

Title: River Systems
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of River Systems

Title: Central Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1966
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Central Japan

Title: Hachijo-Jima
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1954
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Hachijo-Jima

Title: Shizuoka
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1945
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Shizuoka

Title: O-Shima
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1945
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of O-Shima

Title: Tokyo
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1943
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Tokyo
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 2 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections, and may be availble for research (contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager). Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description Lava Source Collection Date
NMNH 108959 Biotite Rhyolite MUKO-YAMA DOME --
NMNH 117801-9 Rhyolite Muko-yama --
Affiliated Sites