Niijima

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 34.397°N
  • 139.27°E

  • 432 m
    1417 ft

  • 284020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Niijima.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Niijima.

Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

10/1985 (SEAN 10:10) Submarine earthquake swarm

01/1992 (BGVN 17:01) Earthquake swarm but no surface changes

03/1992 (BGVN 17:03) Earthquake swarm but no surface changes evident

08/1992 (BGVN 17:08) Weak earthquake swarm

09/1992 (BGVN 17:09) Two weak seismic swarms

10/1992 (BGVN 17:10) Earthquake swarm but no surface changes evident

03/1993 (BGVN 18:03) Earthquake swarm on 23 March; no surface anomalies

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Earthquake swarms

12/1995 (BGVN 20:11/12) Seismic swarm on 4 December

07/1996 (BGVN 21:07) Seismic activity increases


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

All times are local (= UTC + 9 hours)

10/1985 (SEAN 10:10) Submarine earthquake swarm

Local seismicity increased in the sea NW of Nii-jima on 21-22 September. Residents measured no significant changes in temperatures of the island's hot springs during this period. Because epicenters were close to the island, more than 20 events were felt, the largest of magnitude [3.5 (JMA)]. Earthquake swarms are common around Nii-jima; the most recent was in August-September 1983 [when the largest event was M 4.2].

Information Contact: JMA, Tokyo.

01/1992 (BGVN 17:01) Earthquake swarm but no surface changes

An earthquake swarm was recorded on 3-4 January, centered 10 km SW of Nii-jima near Shikine-jima, a dome of the Nii-jima complex (figure 1). The largest shock, M 3.1, occurred at 0657 on 3 January. No surface anomalies were observed at the volcano or on the surrounding sea. Three weeks later, a swarm was recorded near Kozu-shima, 20 km SSW (figure 2).

Figure 1. Epicenter map of earthquakes near Nii-jima and Kozu-shima, January 1992. Courtesy of JMA.
Figure 2. Epicenter map (top) and space/time diagram (bottom) showing seismicity around Kozu-shima and Nii-jima volcanoes, January 1991-June 1992. Courtesy of JMA.

Information Contact: JMA.

03/1992 (BGVN 17:03) Earthquake swarm but no surface changes evident

A seismic swarm recorded between 0200 and 0400 on 19 March consisted of 10 earthquakes beneath and around the island (figure 3). Several of the events were felt by island residents, the largest, M 2.5, at 0349. No surface anomalies were observed.

Figure 3. Epicenter map of earthquakes near Nii-jima, 19 March 1992. Courtesy of JMA.

Information Contact: JMA.

08/1992 (BGVN 17:08) Weak earthquake swarm

A weak earthquake swarm was detected in the sea a few kilometers E and W of the island on 28-29 August. The strongest event was M 2.3.

Information Contact: JMA.

09/1992 (BGVN 17:09) Two weak seismic swarms

Two weak earthquake swarms occurred 5 km WSW and NW of the island on 16 and 22 September. Maximum magnitudes were 3.5 and 3.1, respectively. No ocean-surface anomalies were observed.

Information Contact: JMA.

10/1992 (BGVN 17:10) Earthquake swarm but no surface changes evident

A swarm of earthquakes occurred midway between [Nii-jima and Kozu-shima] islands 17-20 October. The largest earthquake was M 5.1, at 2237 on 17 October. No ocean-surface anomalies were observed.

Information Contact: JMA.

03/1993 (BGVN 18:03) Earthquake swarm on 23 March; no surface anomalies

A weak earthquake swarm occurred 23 March in the N part of Nii-jima island. The earthquakes, M 1.9 maximum, were located both onshore and offshore. . . . No surface anomalies, onshore or offshore, were observed . . . .

Information Contact: JMA.

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Earthquake swarms

. . . An earthquake swarm on 9 September near Nii-jima island . . . included a M 3.7 event.

Information Contact: JMA.

12/1995 (BGVN 20:11/12) Seismic swarm on 4 December

On 4 December, many earthquakes occurred in and around the island, some of which were felt. The largest one was M 4.3.

Information Contact: Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan.

07/1996 (BGVN 21:07) Seismic activity increases

High seismicity around the island was recorded on 17 and 24-26 July. The largest earthquakes (M 4.0) were detected at 1250 and 1321 on 17 July.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan

The elongated island of Niijima, SSW of Oshima, is 11 km long and only 2.5 km wide. It is comprised of eight low rhyolitic lava domes that are clustered in two groups at the northern and southern ends of the island, separated by a low, flat isthmus. The flat-topped domes give the island the appearance of two large plateaus bounded by steep cliffs. The Mukaiyama complex at the southern end of the island and Achiyama lava dome at the northern end were formed during Niijima's only historical eruptions in the 9th century CE. Shikineyama and Zinaito domes form small islands immediately to the SW and west, respectively, during earlier stages of volcanism. Earthquake swarms occurred during the 20th century.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0886 Jun 29 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Mukai-yama
0856 (?) 0857 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Achi-yama
1250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Wakago tephra
4350 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Niijima-yama
5950 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Nii-jima


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
O-mine Pyroclastic cone 301 m


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Achi-yama
    Atti-yama
    Atchi-yama
Dome 207 m
Akazaki-no-mine Dome 429 m 34° 23' 26" N 139° 16' 8" E
Jinaka-yama
    Zinaka-yama
Dome
Marushima-yama
    Marusima-yama
Dome 230 m
Mineji
    Minezi
Dome
Miyazuka-yama Dome 432 m 34° 23' 36" N 129° 16' 24" E
Mukai-yama
    Muko-yama
Dome 283 m
Niijima-yama
    Niizima-yama
Dome 238 m
Seto-yama Dome
Shikine-jima
    Sikine-zima
Dome 105 m
Stratified phreatomagmatic deposits are exposed along a cliff on the eastern coast of Nii-jima, with flat-topped Miyazuka-yama lava dome in the background. The 11-km-long, elongated island of Nii-jima is comprised of eight low rhyolitic lava domes that are clustered in two groups at the northern and southern ends of the island, separated by a low, flat isthmus. The Mukai-yama complex at the southern end of the island and Achi-yama lava dome at the northern end were formed during Nii-jima's only historical eruptions in the 9th century AD.

Photo by Ichio Moriya (Kanazawa University).
The rhyolitic Mukai-yama lava dome lies at the southern end of the island of Nii-jima. It was formed during a single continuous eruption in July 886 AD beginning in shallow water with the formation of a tuff ring by repeated base surges, followed by a subaerial pyroclastic cone and lava domes. The flat-topped Mukai-yama lava dome (also known as Muko-yama) marks the most recent eruptive activity on Nii-jima.

Photo by Ichio Moriya (Kanazawa University).
A spectacular sequence of pyroclastic-surge deposits are exposed in a sea cliff on Nii-jima, in the northern part of the Izu Islands of Japan. The dramatic cross-bedded layers were produced during episodic erosion and deposition by laterally moving ash clouds. The eruptions accompanied formation of a lava dome at Mukai-jima on the southern part of the island. Flat-bedded airfall deposits cap the exposure.

Photo by R.V. Fisher, 1979 (University of California Santa Barbara).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1975. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan. Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 119 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Koyaguchi T, 1986. Evidence for two-stage mixing in magmatic inclusions and rhyolitic lava domes on Niijima Island, Japan. J Volc Geotherm Res, 29: 71-98.

Kudo T, Hoshizumi H, 2006-. Catalog of eruptive events within the last 10,000 years in Japan, database of Japanese active volcanoes. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db099/eruption/index.html.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Ono K, Soya T, Mimura K, 1981. Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan Map Ser, no 11, 2nd edition, 1:2,000,000.

Tsukui M, Saito K, Hayashi K, 2006. Frequent and intensive eruptions in the 9th century, Izu Islands, Japan: revision of volcano-stratigraphy based on tephras and historical documents. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 51: 327-338 (in Japanese with English abs).

Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)
Pumice cone

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Rhyolite
Minor
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
3,060
3,349
6,139
1,347,661

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Niijima Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.