Suwanosejima

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 29.638°N
  • 129.714°E

  • 796 m
    2611 ft

  • 282030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 8 November-14 November 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 November an event at Suwanosejima produced a plume that rose 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: November 2017 (BGVN 42:11) Citation IconCite this Report


Persistent ash plumes, explosions, and Strombolian activity during September 2015-December 2016

Suwanosejima, an andesitic stratovolcano in Japan's northern Ryukyu Islands, was intermittently active for much of the 20th century, producing ash plumes, Strombolian eruptions, and ash deposits. Continuous activity since October 2004 has consisted generally of multiple ash plumes most months rising a few hundred meters above the summit to altitudes between 1 and 2 km, and tens of reported explosions. Activity between January and September 2015 included small eruptions in July and August that produced ash plumes rising to 3-4 km altitude. Increased activity beginning in August 2015 included incandescence at the crater and increased explosive activity with incandescence in September; 89 explosions occurred that month, and ash fell in the village 4 km SSW (BGVN 42:01). Eruptive activity for the period of September 2015-December 2016 included intermittent explosions, ash plumes up to 4.3 km altitude, ashfall within a 5-km radius, and Strombolian activity. Information is provided primarily by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), and the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Activity during September-December 2015. Numerous explosions were reported by the JMA during 24-30 September. The Tokyo VAAC reported a plume at 2.1 km altitude extending SE on 24 September; subsequent reports noted there were no observations of ash emissions or plumes in satellite data during that time, and no further VAAC reports were issued after 30 September (until January 2016).

JMA reported that explosions at the Ontake crater on 2, 13, and 31 October 2015 produced gray-and-white emissions and rose a maximum of 800 m above the summit (at ~800 m elevation). Explosions occurred on 1 and 20 November as well; the plume rose 1 km above the crater rim on 1 November. Ashfall was confirmed in the small village 4 km SSW after both events. There were no explosions reported during December 2015; only steam emissions rose 600 m above the summit crater, and rumbling was heard on 12 December from the nearby settlement. Incandescence was visible with a thermal camera at night during September-December 2015.

Activity during 2016. According to JMA, explosions and intermittent emissions occurred during most months of 2016 (table 12). Ashfall in the village 4 km SSW of the summit was reported during January-April, July-August, and October-November. Steam-and-ash plume heights ranged from 800 to 2,700 m above the crater rim. The number of monthly seismic events was low in January (25), increasing to a maximum of 1,195 in April. It dropped below 200 by July, and below 100 during November and December. Incandescence at night was reported often every month. An overflight on 31 May 2016 revealed a steam plume rising 400 m above Ontake crater (figure 20). Strombolian activity on 15 September and 23 November 2016 ejected incandescent blocks onto the crater rim (figure 21). An ash emission on 25 November sent gray and white ash and steam 1,800 m above the crater rim (figure 22). Incandescent blocks from an explosion were also observed on 17 December.

Table 12. Activity at Suwanosejima during 2016 reported by JMA. Times are local.

Month No. of explosions Emission events Max plume height (m above crater) Dates of ashfall in village 4 km SSW No. of seismic events Other activity detail
Jan 2016 1 Yes, small -- 22, 23 25 Occasional incandescence at night; explosion at 2114 on 6 Jan.
Feb 2016 0 Occasional small 800 m 22 64 Occasional incandescence at night.
Mar 2016 13   1,700 m 7, 20, 21 170 Incandescence at night; shockwaves felt 20-21 Mar.
Apr 2016 14 -- 1,700 m 11, 15, 18, 19 1,195 Incandescence at night; occasional rumbling; seismicity increased 24-26 Apr.
May 2016 5 Steam plumes 1,200 m None 396 Incandescence at night; overflight (figure 20); steam plume 400 m above crater on 31 May drifted NE.
Jun 2016 0 Occasional 1,900m None 606 Incandescence at night.
Jul 2016 0 Occasional 1,900 m 23 142 Incandescence at night.
Aug 2016 26 -- 2,700 m on 12 and 28 1, 2 171 Incandescence at night; tephra around crater on 12 and 28 Aug; infrasound on 13, 14 Aug; rumbling on 25 Aug.
Sep 2016 1 3 Ash to 1,900 m on 17, steam to 2,400 m on 5 None 106 Incandescence almost every day; Strombolian activity and explosion at 2305 on 15 Sep (figure 21).
Oct 2016 0 Occasional 1,200 m 6, 30 102 Incandescence almost every day.
Nov 2016 11 Occasional ash emissions 1,800 m 5, 6, 26, 29 56 Constant incandescence; Strombolian explosion at 2325 on 23 Nov sent blocks around crater (figure 22).
Dec 2016 7 Occasional ash emissions 2,500 m at 1356 on 13 None 33 Incandescence at night; large explosion at 2020 on 13 Dec; incandescent blocks on 17 Dec.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Aerial photos of Ontake crater at Suwanosejima on 31 May 2016. Upper image is the close-up view outlined in red below. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary on Suwanosejima, May 2016).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Strombolian activity and explosion at Suwanosejima on 15 September 2016 sent a large incandescent block outside the crater rim (center left). Courtesy of JMA "Paris tree" webcam (Volcanic activity commentary on Suwanosejima, September 2016).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Explosive activity at Suwanosejima during November 2016 produced Strombolian activity and ash emissions. A Strombolian explosion on 23 November (top photo) sent incandescent blocks around the crater rim (left center, viewed by the JMA "Nogi" webcam). An ash emission on 25 November (bottom photo) sent ash and steam 1,800 m above the crater rim (viewed by the JMA "Campsite" webcam). Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary on Suwanosejima, November 2016).

The Tokyo VAAC also reported information about ash plumes and explosions during 2016 (table 13). Explosions were reported during every month of 2016 except February, and ranged from two in January to 19 in August. Most plume heights were lower than 2.7 km altitude. Exceptions included: an explosion on 1 August produced an ash plume that rose to 3.4 km altitude and drifted S; a plume rose to 3 km on 29 November and also drifted S; and the largest of the year, an ash plume that rose to 4.3 km altitude and drifted E, on 13 December (figure 23).

MODVOLC thermal alerts were reported on 20 April, 4 May (3), and 17 May 2016.

Table 13. Summary of activity reported at Suwanosejima during 2016 by the Tokyo VAAC. Time in UTC.

Month Explosion Count Explosion Days Plume Heights Drift Directions
Jan 2016 2 4, 6 1.5 km SE
Feb 2016 0 -- -- --
Mar 2016 14 2 (2), 4, 6, 7 (2), 10, 21, 22 (2), 23, 26 (2), 30 1.2-2.4 km SE, W, N
Apr 2016 13 5, 10, 14 (2), 15, 17 (2), 18, 19 (3), 20, 21 1-2.4 km E, W, SE, S, N
May 2016 5 3 (2), 4 (2), 18 1.5-2.1 km E, SE, W
Jun 2016 4 13 (3), 14 1.8-2.7 km E
Jul 2016 4 18 (2), 22, 31 1.5-2.7 km NE, E, N, NW, W
Aug 2016 19 1 (3), 10 (3), 11, 12, 14 (2), 17, 25, 26 (2), 27 (2), 28 (2), 31 1.0-3.4 km SW, SE, W, NW
Sep 2016 2 15, 16 2.7 km W
Oct 2016 5 6 (2), 25 (2), 26 1.5-1.8 km E, S, NE
Nov 2016 18 5, 6, 8, 10 (2), 11 (3), 12 (2), 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 25 (2), 29 1.2-2.1, 3.0 km on 29 E, SW, SE, S, W
Dec 2016 4 13 (2), 16, 17 4.3 on 13, 1.8 km NE, SE, SW, W
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. The largest ash explosion of 2016 at Suwanosejima (viewed from the JMA "Parquet" webcam) occurred on 13 December 2016 and sent a plume to 4.3 km altitude (3,500 m above the crater rim). Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary on Suwanosejima, December 2016).

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).

Weekly Reports - Index


2017: January | February | March | May | June | July | August | September | October | November
2016: January | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2015: January | February | April | July | August | September
2014: January | February | April | June | August | September | November | December
2013: July | August | September | October | November | December
2012: January | February | October
2011: January | February | March | April | July | September | October
2010: January | February | March | April | May | July | August | September | October | November | December
2009: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2008: February | March | April | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2007: January | February | March | May | July | September | October | November | December
2006: January | February | March | April | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2005: March | April | May | June | July | August | September
2004: January | April | June | November | December
2003: December
2002: June | August | September
2001: January | May | July | October


8 November-14 November 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 November an event at Suwanosejima produced a plume that rose 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 November-7 November 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions at Suwanosejima during 31 October, and 1, 3, and 5 November; plumes rose 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 October-17 October 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 October an explosion at Suwanosejima generated a plume that rose 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 September-3 October 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion on 29 September which generated a plume that rose 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 September-12 September 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions on 6 September generated plums that rose 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 August-5 September 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 30 August-2 September.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 August-29 August 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24-25 August ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 August-22 August 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions at Suwanosejima during 19-20 August.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 July-25 July 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-19 July ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 June-4 July 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 2 July ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 May-16 May 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 May plumes from Suwanosejima rose to an altitudes of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 May-9 May 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 8 May plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1-2.1 km (3,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 March-4 April 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 1 April an explosion at Suwanosejima generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 March-28 March 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 28 March an explosion at Suwanosejima generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 March-7 March 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-4 March explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 February-28 February 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions at Suwanosejima during 27-28 February. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 28 February.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 February-14 February 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 9 February an explosion generated an ash plume from Suwanosejima that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 January-31 January 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 26 January an ash plume from Suwanosejima rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 January-17 January 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 January an ash plume from Suwanosejima rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 January-10 January 2017 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-5 January ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 December-20 December 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 17-18 December ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 December-13 December 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, pilot observations, and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions at Suwanosejima on 13 December generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 November-29 November 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions on 23, 25, and 29 November. Ash plumes on 25 and 29 November rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SW. On 29 November a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 November-22 November 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-17 November explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude over 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. During 20-21 November ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 November-15 November 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 5-6 October explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.1 km (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, S, and W.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


2 November-8 November 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 5-6 November events at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 October-11 October 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 6 October an explosion at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 September-20 September 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


The Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion at Suwanosejima on 15 September. An explosion on 17 September produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 August-6 September 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on a pilot observation and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 31 August ash plume from Suwanosejima rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 August-30 August 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 25-26 and 28-29 August explosions at Suwanosejima often generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 0.9-2.4 km (3,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and SE.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


10 August-16 August 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 14 August ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 July-2 August 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-2 August ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.4 km (5,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 July-19 July 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, satellite-image analyses and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-19 July ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 June-14 June 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 June ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


18 May-24 May 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 May an explosion at Suwanosejima generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 May-10 May 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-5 May explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plume that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 April-26 April 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, pilot observations, and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions at Suwanosejima during 20-21 April; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW on 20 April.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 April-19 April 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, pilot observations, and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion on 14 April, and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 0.1-2.1 km (3,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, E, SE, and S during 15 and 17-19 April.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 March-29 March 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 21, 23-24, and 26 March explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, W, and SE. Ash emissions continued on 27 March.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 March-15 March 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 March an explosion at Suwanosejima generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


2 March-8 March 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 2-3 and 8 March explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted SE. Explosions were also detected on 5 and 7 March.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


6 January-12 January 2016 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion at Suwanosejima on 6 January.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 September-15 September 2015 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 September ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


19 August-25 August 2015 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 21 August ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


29 July-4 August 2015 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, satellite-image analyses, and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SW, and W during 30-31 July and 4 August. On 2 August an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 April-28 April 2015 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions at Suwanose-jima during 24-25 April generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 April-14 April 2015 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Suwanose-jima on 13 April generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 February-17 February 2015 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 14-15 February ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 January-27 January 2015 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanosejima on 25 January.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 December-6 January 2015 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on a pilot observations and JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 5 January ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 14 December an explosion at Suwanosejima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 December-9 December 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 7 December explosions at Suwanosejima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 November-18 November 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 14 November an explosion at Suwanosejima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 September-9 September 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


Tokyo VAAC released ash advisories for Suwanosejima during 3-4 and 9 September based on JMA reports. Ash drifted NE and N at 1,800-5,500 m (6,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. on 3 September. On 4 September, an ash plume at 5,500 m (18,000 ft) a.s.l. was observed. JMA also reported a 2,100 m (7,000 ft) a.s.l. ash plume on 9 September at 2233.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


During 28 August-1 September, the Tokyo VAAC reported eruptions at Suwanosejima. Ash plumes rose 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, S, and NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 June-24 June 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


During 18-20 June, JMA reported explosions at Suwanosejima. Ash plumes were not visible in satellite images. Explosions occurred at 1346 on 18 June, 0834 on 19 June with a plume drifting E, and at 0033 on 20 June.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 April-29 April 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 29 April an explosion at Suwanosejima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 February-25 February 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


The Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanosejima on 19 February. Explosions during 23-24 February produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. An ash plume on 24 February drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 February-18 February 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


The Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanosejima during 12-14 February. On 12 February a plume rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, and on 14 February a plume rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 January-4 February 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on JMA notices and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 2 February ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and SSE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 January-28 January 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanosejima on 24 January generated a plume that rose to an altitude 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 January-14 January 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanosejima during 8-9 January sometimes generated plumes that rose to an altitude 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 January-7 January 2014 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 1-3 and 6 January. Explosions during 1-2 January generated plumes that rose to altitudes 0.9-1.8 km (3,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. JMA noted that the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 December-31 December 2013 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 26-30 December. Explosions during 27-28 December generated plumes that rose to an altitude over 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 November-3 December 2013 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 27 November generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 October-22 October 2013 Citation IconCite this Report


According to the Tokyo VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume from Suwanose-jima on 21 October. Based on information from JMA the VAAC noted that a plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S that same day.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 September-17 September 2013 Citation IconCite this Report


According to the Tokyo VAAC, the JMA reported that on 12 September an eruption from Suwanose-jima generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 September-10 September 2013 Citation IconCite this Report


According to the Tokyo VAAC, the JMA reported that during 5-6 September explosions from Suwanose-jima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 August-3 September 2013 Citation IconCite this Report


According to the Tokyo VAAC, the JMA reported that on 28 August pilots observed ash plumes from Suwanose-jima that rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NW. Explosions during 28-29 August generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ash was detected in satellite images on 29 August, and explosions were detected on 30 August and 1 September.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 August-27 August 2013 Citation IconCite this Report


According to the Tokyo VAAC, the JMA reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 26-27 August. Plumes rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. on 27 August, and drifted NE and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 July-9 July 2013 Citation IconCite this Report


According to the Tokyo VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume from Suwanose-jima that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not detected in satellite images.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 October-9 October 2012 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 3 October an ash plume from Suwanose-jima drifted SW at altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 February-6 March 2012 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 6 March. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 February-7 February 2012 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 6 February. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 January-17 January 2012 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 12 January. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 October-25 October 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 14 October an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 September-13 September 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 12 September. That same day an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 July-19 July 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 14 July an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 April-3 May 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 3 May. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 April-12 April 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanose-jima on 12 April produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 March-22 March 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 19-20 March. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 March-15 March 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 15 March. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 March-8 March 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 3 March. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 February-15 February 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 9 and 14 February. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 February-8 February 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 5 February an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 0.7 km (2,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Explosions during 5-7 February were noted by JMA.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 January-25 January 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 22-23 and 25 January. A plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 23 January.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 January-18 January 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 12-13 and 15 January. A plume rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 13 January.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 January-11 January 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima during 11-12 January. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 December-4 January 2011 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 29 December. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 December-21 December 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 20 December. Details of possible a resulting plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 December-7 December 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 1-4 December. Plumes rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) and drifted SE on 4 December.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 November-30 November 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 27 November-1 December. Plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) on 29 November.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 November-23 November 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 18-23 November. Plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) on 18 November and to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 21 November.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 November-16 November 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 10 and 12 November. On 11 November a pilot reported an ash plume. A subsequent satellite image showed that the ash had dissipated. The next day, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 October-26 October 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 26 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 October-19 October 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 16-17 October. A plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 17 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 September-5 October 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 3-5 October. A plume drifted E on 5 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 September-28 September 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 22, 25, and 27-28 September. A pilot observed an ash plume on 22 September that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. JMA noted that plumes on 25 September rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 September-21 September 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 19-21 September. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 September-14 September 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 11 September. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 August-31 August 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 25 and 27 August. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 August-24 August 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 21-24 August. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 July-27 July 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanose-jima produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 July and to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 July. Plumes drifted NW and W, respectively.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 July-20 July 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 17 and 19 July. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 May-18 May 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanose-jima during 15-16 May produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 April-4 May 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 29 April, and during 1 and 4-5 May. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 March-6 April 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 2 April. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 March-30 March 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 29 March. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 February-23 February 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 17-19 and 21-22 February. Plumes occasionally rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 February-16 February 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 11-16 February. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 February-9 February 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 5-6 and 9 February. Details of possible resulting emissions were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 January-2 February 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 27 January-2 February. On 27 January, plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 29 January.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 January-26 January 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


During 29-30 December 2009, a visitor to Suwanose-jima observed and photographed multiple Strombolian explosions and ash eruptions from On-take (Otake) crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 22-26 January. On 24 and 26 January, plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Richard Roscoe, Photo Volcanica


13 January-19 January 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 13 and 16-17 January. Details of possible resulting emissions were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 January-12 January 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 6-9 and 11 January. Plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 and 9 January and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 December-5 January 2010 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 30 December-2 January and 4-5 January. Plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 and 4 January, and drifted NE and E on 4 January.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 December-29 December 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 24, 26, and 28-29 December. Details of possible resulting emissions were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 December-22 December 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported eruptions from Suwanose-jima during 17-20 and 22 December. A plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 22 December.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 December-15 December 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported eruptions from Suwanose-jima on 14 and 15 December. Plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 December-8 December 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima during 5-6 December. Details of possible resulting emissions were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 November-1 December 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 26 November an ash plume from Suwanose-jima was seen by a pilot 65 km S drifting NE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 November-24 November 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 18 November. Details of possible resulting emissions were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 November-17 November 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 12 and 16 November. Details of possible resulting emissions were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 November-10 November 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanose-jima during 4-5 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. An explosion was also reported on 6 November.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 October-3 November 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 30 October and 2 November. Details of possible resulting emissions were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 October-13 October 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 10 and 11 October. A plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 10 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 September-6 October 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 1 October. A plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and rifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 September-22 September 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 September ash from Suwanose-jima drifted S. On 19 September, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 September-15 September 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 13-14 September. Details of possible resulting ash plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 September-8 September 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 3-7 September. Details of possible resulting ash plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 August-1 September 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanose-jima during 27-29 August sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 August-18 August 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanose-jima during 16-17 August produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E on 16 August.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 August-11 August 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 10 August. Details of a possible resultant ash plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 July-4 August 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 5 August. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 July-28 July 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 23-24 July. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 July-21 July 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 July an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Eruptions reported by the JMA during 16-17 July produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 July-7 July 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 6 July. Details of a possible resultant ash plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 June-16 June 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 16 June. Details of a possible resultant ash plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 May-26 May 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on analysis of satellite imagery and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 25 May an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 May-19 May 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


The Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on13 May, as stated by JMA. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were not reported. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and a pilot observation, the VAAC also reported that on 17 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 May-12 May 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 7-9 and 12 May. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 April-5 May 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions from Suwanose-jima during 29 April-1 May produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted W on 30 April and 1 May.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 April-28 April 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


The Tokyo VAAC reported that a pilot saw an ash plume from Suwanose-jima on 22 April. JMA reported that an eruption the next day produced ash plumes to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and S. On 27 April, an explosion was reported but details of a possible resultant ash plume were not. On 28 April, explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 April-21 April 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 21 April. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 April-14 April 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 8 and 10 April. Details of possible resultant ash plumes on either day were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 April-7 April 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 6 April.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 March-31 March 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 28 March. JMA reported three explosions on 30 March. Details of possible resultant ash plumes on either day were not reported.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 March-17 March 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 and 16 March eruptions from Suwanose-jima produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E on 15 March.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 March-10 March 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported multiple explosions from Suwanose-jima on 6 March. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 February-3 March 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported multiple explosions from Suwanose-jima during 26 February-1 March. On 1 March, resultant plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 2 March, an eruption produced a plume to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion was reported on 3 March.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 February-24 February 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


JMA reported that Suwanose-jima erupted explosively on 18 February; a colored plume rose 400 m above the crater and drifted E. Two explosive eruptions occurred the next day. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions on 20 and 21 February. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were not reported.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 January-27 January 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 21 January. Details of a possible resultant ash plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 January-13 January 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 9 January.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 December-6 January 2009 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption from Suwanose-jima on 3 January. A plume rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 December-30 December 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 26-28 and 30 December. Plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. during 27-28 December.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 December-23 December 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 17 and 19-20 December explosions or eruptions from Suwanose-jima produced plumes to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E on 17 and 19 December.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, analysis of satellite imagery, and pilot reports, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions or eruptions from Suwanose-jima during 10-12 and 14-16 December. Plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.8 km (3,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Details of a possible ash plume on 14 and 16 December were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 November-25 November 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption from Suwanose-jima on 21 November. A plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. An explosion was reported on 25 November.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 November-18 November 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported multiple explosions or eruptions from Suwanose-jima during 12-16 November. Occasional plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. during 13-15 November.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 November-11 November 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on pilot observations and analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 5 November an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The JMA indicated that during 7-8 November explosion or eruption plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. An explosion was reported on 12 November.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 October-4 November 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 29-30 October and 3 November Suwanose-jima produced explosion or eruption plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Explosions were reported on 31 October and 1 November, but details of possible ash plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 October-28 October 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that Suwanose-jima produced explosion or eruption plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and E during 21, 23, 25-26, and 28 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 October-21 October 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanose-jima during 16 and 18-20 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 October-14 October 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on reports from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 9 and 11 October. The altitude and direction of a possible resultant plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on reports from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 1, 3, 7, and 8 October. Plumes rose straight up to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 8 October. The altitude and direction of plumes were not reported for the other days.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 September-30 September 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on reports from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 25-26 and 28-29 September. Resultant plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 September-9 September 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on reports from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 5-7 September. Resultant plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E on 5 September.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 August-26 August 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on reports from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 24-26 August. Resultant plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. during 25-26 August.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 August-12 August 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on reports from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 7 August an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 July-29 July 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on pilot reports, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 July an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 0.6 km (2,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 June-17 June 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Suwanose-jima occurred on 17 June. The altitude and direction of a possible resultant plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 April-22 April 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Suwanose-jima occurred on 16 April. The altitude and direction of a possible resultant plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 March-25 March 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Suwanose-jima occurred on 22 March. The altitude and direction of a possible resultant plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 February-12 February 2008 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 7 February and drifted E. Explosions were also noted on 8, 9, and 13 February, but altitude and direction of possible plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 December-18 December 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Suwanose-jima rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. during 14-17 December and drifted E. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 December-11 December 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Suwanose-jima rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 10 December and drifted W. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 November-4 December 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Suwanose-jima rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. during 29 November-2 December and drifted E. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 October-30 October 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. during 26-28 October and drifted E and W. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 October-23 October 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 22 October and drifted W. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 October-16 October 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 16 October and drifted E. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 September-18 September 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 17 September. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 July-31 July 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA and a pilot report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW on 26 July. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 8 May. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 March-3 April 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 30 March and 2 April. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 March-20 March 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 17 March. Ash was not seen on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 February-6 March 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 2 March an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 February-20 February 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA and satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Suwanose-jima produced eruption plumes during 19-20 February. The altitude and direction of the plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 February-13 February 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA and satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Suwanose-jima produced an eruption plume during 7 February. The altitude and direction of the plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 January-6 February 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA and satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Suwanose-jima produced an eruption plume during 5-6 February. The altitude and direction of the plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 January-30 January 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima on 28 January. The altitude and direction of the plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 January-9 January 2007 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima on 9 January. The altitude and direction of the plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 December-26 December 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption from Suwanose-jima occurred on 19 December.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 November-21 November 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 November an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima rose straight up to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 November-14 November 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 9 November an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima reached an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 November-7 November 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on satellite imagery and information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-6 November eruption plumes from Suwanose-jima reached altitudes of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted E and SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 October-31 October 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 27 and 28 October, ash plumes from Suwanose-jima reached altitudes of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E on 28 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 October-24 October 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 18 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 October-17 October 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA and a pilot report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 14, 16, and 17 October, ash plumes from Suwanose-jima reached altitudes of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 October-10 October 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 6 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 September-26 September 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


On 20 September the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite caught Suwanose-jima in the process of emitting volcanic ash and steam. The volcano's emissions blew N, gradually fanning out over the ocean, with a grayish tinge that distinguished it from nearby white clouds. Aviation ash advisories for this eruption issued by the Tokyo VAAC based on satellite imagery, pilot reports, and JMA, noted that the plume rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and extended about 80 km N.

Sources: NASA Earth Observatory; Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 September-19 September 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA and a pilot report, the Tokyo VAAC reported on 19 September that ash plumes from Suwanose-jima reached altitudes of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 August-29 August 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanose-jima produced eruption plumes that rose straight up to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 August. On 28 August, eruption plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 August-15 August 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 11-14 August. The resulting plumes reached maximum altitudes of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and W. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 July-1 August 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 26-30 July. The resulting plumes reached maximum altitudes of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 July-18 July 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


A pilot observed an ash plume from Suwanose-jima on 16 July that reached an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 June-4 July 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported on 30 June that a small plume from Suwanose-jima reached an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 June-13 June 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


A pilot observed ash from Suwanose-jima on 7 June at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 April-18 April 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA and an aircraft report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash from Suwanose-jima was visible at a height of ~1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 16 April.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 March-7 March 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that several explosions occurred at Suwanose-jima during 2-7 March. The highest plume reached ~1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 5 March.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 February-28 February 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 22-24 February several small eruptions occurred at Suwanose-jima. The highest rising plume reached ~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. after an eruption on 23 February.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 February-7 February 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that several explosions occurred at Suwanose-jima during 6-7 February. A resultant plume from an explosion on the 6th rose to 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and extended NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 January-10 January 2006 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions occurred at Suwanose-jima on 1 and 10 January. An explosion on 10 January produced an ash plume to a height of ~1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. The heights of ash clouds from other explosions were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 September-27 September 2005 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an emission from Suwanose-jima on 22 September reached a height of ~1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 August-16 August 2005 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that small eruptions at Suwanose-jima on 11 and 12 August produced ash plumes to a height of ~3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 July-2 August 2005 Citation IconCite this Report


A pilot observed ash from Suwanose-jima on 28 July at a height of 2.4 km (~8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 July-12 July 2005 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion occurred at Suwanose-jima on 6 July at 1400. The height of the resultant ash cloud was not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 June-7 June 2005 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-6 June several explosions at Suwanose-jima produced ash clouds. The only known height of an ash cloud was ~1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. from an explosion on 1 June.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 May-31 May 2005 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that several explosions occurred at Suwanose-jima during 26-31 May. The highest reported plume rose to ~2.1 km (~7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 April-3 May 2005 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Suwanose-jima on April 26 produced a plume to 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. that extended E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 March-15 March 2005 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Suwanose-jima on 9 March produced an ash plume to a height of ~1.8 km a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 March-8 March 2005 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that emissions from Suwanose-jima on 6 and 8 March produced ash plumes that rose to 1.5 and 1.2 km a.s.l., respectively.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 December-4 January 2005 Citation IconCite this Report


On 29 December, the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption at Suwanose-jima that produced an ash plume to ~1.2 km a.s.l. Eruptions were also reported on 1 and 4 January, but no plumes were visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 December-28 December 2004 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions at Suwanose-jima produced ash plumes to unknown heights on 22, 24, 25, and 27 December. The plumes were not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 December-21 December 2004 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Suwanose-jima on 20 December produced a SE-drifting plume to ~1.8 km a.s.l. Also, on 21 December an eruption produced a SE-drifting ash plume to an unknown height.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 November-30 November 2004 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption occurred at Suwanose-jima on 30 November at 1607. The eruption produced a plume to a height of ~1.2 km.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 June-6 July 2004 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that several explosions occurred at Suwanose-jima during 30 June to 5 July. The highest rising plume reached ~1.9 km a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 June-15 June 2004 Citation IconCite this Report


An eruption at Suwanose-jima on 9 June at 1003 produced an ash plume visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~1.8 km a.s.l., extending E. Another explosion at 1300 that day produced an ash plume that reached an unknown height.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 June-8 June 2004 Citation IconCite this Report


On 7 June Suwanose-jima erupted, producing a plume to ~2 km a.s.l. that extended E. Eruptions continued through 8 June with at least one explosion producing a gas-and-ash plume to ~2 km a.s.l. that also drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 April-4 May 2004 Citation IconCite this Report


According to the Tokyo VAAC, ash emitted from Suwanose-jima was reported on 28 April at a height of ~3 km a.s.l. extending SE. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. JMA reported that an explosion occurred on 1 May at 0906, but it was not known if an ash cloud was produced.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 January-27 January 2004 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from the Japanese Meteorological Agency, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions at Suwanose-jima on 21 and 22 January produced ash plumes to unknown heights.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 December-6 January 2004 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 2 and 4 January small explosions occurred at Suwanose-jima producing ash plumes to unknown heights.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 December-30 December 2003 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that several small ash emissions from Suwanose-jima on 27 and 28 December rose to unknown heights. Ash from an eruption on 28 December at 0820 reached a height of ~1.5 km a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 December-23 December 2003 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from the Japanese Meteorological Agency, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Suwanose-jima on 21 December at 1828 produced a plume to an unknown height.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2003 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Suwanose-jima on 15 December at 1946 produced a plume to an unknown height.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 September-17 September 2002 Citation IconCite this Report


Activity at Suwanose-jima was relatively low from 26 August until 12 September. On the 12th explosive eruptions began to occur frequently. According to the Suwanose-jima office of Toshima village, rumbling was intermittently heard about 4 km SSW of the summit and small amounts of ash fell. Explosions continued to occur until at least 13 September.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) via the Volcano Research Center


21 August-27 August 2002 Citation IconCite this Report


Eruptive activity began to decline at Suwanose-jima in comparison to the previous week. Periods of volcanic tremor occurred on the 19th and 20th. According to the Suwanose-jima office of Toshima Village, rumbling sounds were not as strong as those of the previous week, but were sometimes accompanied by the sounds of large explosions on the 20th. Small amounts of ash fell in inhabited areas about 4 km SSW of the summit on the 20th and 21st. On the afternoon of the 20th ash also fell in Naze city on Amami-oshima Island, about 140 km S of Suwanose-jima. Aerial inspections conducted during the report period by the staff of Kagoshima Meteorological Observatory revealed that an ash-rich cloud rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted S.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) via the Volcano Research Center


14 August-20 August 2002 Citation IconCite this Report


Small explosive eruptions occurred at Suwanose-jima on 19 August. JMA reported that on the 19th two periods of continuous acoustic signals were recorded for 20-30 minutes each beginning around 0000 and 0630. The signals were the largest recorded thus far this year. Explosions and rumbling were heard from Toshima village, and an ash plume drifted to the SW. Volcanic tremor with continuous large acoustic signals was also recorded later in the day during 0940-0950 and 1410-1500. Small tremor events also occurred, and ash rose above the summit to an unknown height and drifted SE.

Sources: Associated Press; Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) via the Volcano Research Center; Kyodo News


12 June-18 June 2002 Citation IconCite this Report


Based on information from aircraft reports and JMA, the Tokyo VAAC stated that volcanic ash from Suwanose-jima was reported on 18 June at 1058 at a height of ~6 km drifting E. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 October-23 October 2001 Citation IconCite this Report


On 11 October at 1400 an eruption began at Suwanose-jima. Volcanic tremor associated with the eruption was detected during 11 October through at least 15 October. Up to eleven explosions were counted. Acoustic microphones recorded four shock waves associated with large explosions.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA); Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)


25 July-31 July 2001 Citation IconCite this Report


Volcanic tremor was detected near Suwanose-jima's On-take (Otake) crater beginning on 25 July at 2200 until at least 26 July. JMA reported that an eruption on 26 July at 1430 produced a volcanic plume that rose to 1.3 km above the crater and drifted to the S. That day seismometers ~2 km SW of the crater recorded explosions at 0501, 0558, 0935, and 1055. According to the Suwanose-jima Branch of the Toshima Village Office, ash fell the morning of 26 July.

Source: Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)


9 May-15 May 2001 Citation IconCite this Report


Beginning on the morning of 9 May volcanic activity increased at Suwanose-jima when a tremor event commenced. The tremor increased at 1100 and became more violent at 2100. Around noon on 11 May an eruption produced an ash cloud that rose 1-1.5 km above the crater. The Suwanose-jima Branch of Toshima village, ~4 km NNW of the active On-take (Otake) crater, reported that abundant ash fall was observed in the village on 11 May. Vigorous eruptions on the evening of 12 May and the morning of 13 May deposited up to 3 cm of ash in the village. At 0900 on 14 May the eruption seemed to have stopped. The Sakurajima Volcano Observatory reported that plumes associated with volcanic tremor events have been observed at Suwanose-jima since the new crater was formed during the December 2000 eruption.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)


17 January-23 January 2001 Citation IconCite this Report


At ~1700 on 19 December 2000, a Suwanose-jima inhabitant reported "smoke" rising NE of the summit crater. During observations from a helicopter, ash-laden smoke and high-temperature gas emissions were seen emanating from new craters. The Sakura-jima Volcano Research Center observed an increase in volcanic earthquakes deeper than 1 km below the summit in comparison to Fall 1999. They also noted an increase in volcanic earthquakes and tremor shallower than 1 km in comparison to early 2000. Researchers will continue to closely monitor the volcano.

Source: Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)


Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

06/1970 (CSLP 53-70) Summit-crater explosions on 28 May

01/1971 (CSLP 53-70) Explosions on 13 and 20-22 December 1970

06/1976 (NSEB 01:09) Mild Strombolian eruptions continue

09/1976 (NSEB 01:12) Pilots note unusually high "smoke" columns

05/1977 (NSEB 02:05) Frequent explosions and considerable ashfall

06/1977 (NSEB 02:06) Explosions continue but are less frequent

08/1977 (NSEB 02:08) Eruptions continue; considerable ash deposition

10/1977 (NSEB 02:10) Activity continued during August and September

08/1979 (SEAN 04:08) Activity since January 1977 tabulated

09/1979 (SEAN 04:09) Six hours of explosions; air shocks rattle doors and windows 90 km away

01/1980 (SEAN 05:01) Explosions; incandescent tephra; 1979 activity summarized

07/1980 (SEAN 05:07) Tephra ejection

12/1980 (SEAN 05:12) December 1979-December 1980 explosions tabulated

10/1981 (SEAN 06:10) January-August 1981 explosions tabulated

11/1981 (SEAN 06:11) Three days of explosions

11/1982 (SEAN 07:11) November 1981-October 1982 activity

03/1984 (SEAN 09:03) Summary of activity, November 1982-January 1984

07/1985 (SEAN 10:07) Explosions resume; 2.5 km plume; ashfall 25 km SE

07/1986 (SEAN 11:07) Explosions cause 200 m plume

11/1986 (SEAN 11:11) 500-600-m-high ash plume

01/1987 (SEAN 12:01) Plume to 1,200-1,500 m

05/1987 (SEAN 12:05) Ash eruption

04/1988 (SEAN 13:04) Small explosions; light ashfall

07/1988 (SEAN 13:07) 3,000-m ash cloud

10/1988 (SEAN 13:10) Plume seen from aircraft

03/1989 (SEAN 14:03) Explosions and ashfall; 1988 activity summarized

06/1989 (SEAN 14:06) Frequent explosions; ashfall on inhabited area

07/1989 (SEAN 14:07) Vigorous explosions continue

12/1990 (BGVN 15:12) Explosions and ash emissions

10/1991 (BGVN 16:10) Ash ejection

05/1992 (BGVN 17:05) Tephra clouds from frequent explosions

10/1992 (BGVN 17:10) Explosions eject blocks

11/1992 (BGVN 17:11) Frequent explosions; lava fountains

03/1993 (BGVN 18:03) Sporadic, weak ash eruptions

04/1993 (BGVN 18:04) Sporadic, weak ash eruptions

05/1993 (BGVN 18:05) Weak ash explosions

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Eruption produces ashfall up to 100 km away

12/1993 (BGVN 18:12) Small explosive eruptions

12/1994 (BGVN 19:12) Intermittent weak eruptions throughout 1994 cause ashfall on the island

12/1995 (BGVN 20:11) Continued minor eruptive activity throughout much of 1995

01/1996 (BGVN 21:01) Small eruptions in January; nine explosions throughout 1995

03/1996 (BGVN 21:03) Weak ash eruptions in early March cause ashfalls

06/1996 (BGVN 21:06) Strong eruptions produce volcanic ash clouds

07/1996 (BGVN 21:07) Explosive activity continues

01/1997 (BGVN 22:01) Weak ash emission and rumbling in late December

06/1997 (BGVN 22:06) Ashfall in March and continued ash emissions in April

02/2001 (BGVN 26:02) Two subsidiary craters discovered; elevated activity in December 2000

07/2001 (BGVN 26:07) Explosive eruptions in May and July

07/2002 (BGVN 27:07) Volcanic tremor, plumes, and ash eruptions during October 2001-August 2002

04/2003 (BGVN 28:04) Ash explosions in September and December 2002, and activity in January 2003

03/2004 (BGVN 29:03) Sporadic eruptions in 2003 and in January 2004, one to 2.4 km altitude

07/2005 (BGVN 30:07) Eruptions during April 2004-July 2005 send plumes to varying heights

11/2007 (BGVN 32:11) Eruptions of July 2005-December 2007 send plumes to varying heights

02/2008 (BGVN 33:02) Small (~1 km) plumes noted during late 2007-early 2008

09/2008 (BGVN 33:09) Eruption continues from 2007 into 2008

07/2009 (BGVN 34:07) Explosive eruptions continue through 6 July 2009

07/2011 (BGVN 36:07) Many small explosions up to 2 km altitude during mid-2009 to mid-2011

08/2012 (BGVN 37:08) 2011-2012 eruptions with plumes rising up to 1 km above crater rim

04/2013 (BGVN 38:04) Near continuous tremor between July 2012 and March 2013

11/2014 (BGVN 39:11) Periods with several eruptions per day during April 2013-December 2014

01/2017 (BGVN 42:01) Occasional ash plumes during January-September 2015

11/2017 (BGVN 42:11) Persistent ash plumes, explosions, and Strombolian activity during September 2015-December 2016




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


June 1970 (CSLP 53-70)


Summit-crater explosions on 28 May

Card 0958 (10 June 1970) Summit-crater explosions on 28 May

"On-take, the summit crater of Suwanose-zima volcano exploded with large explosion sounds at 0000-0050 JST on 28 May 1970. Explosions took place with frequency of about three times a minute. Volcanic smoke at 0730 JST was 2,000-3,000 m high and these activities became quiet at about 0800 JST.

Information Contacts: Y. Sawada, Seismological Division, JMA, Tokyo, Japan.


January 1971 (CSLP 53-70)


Explosions on 13 and 20-22 December 1970

Card 1095 (20 January 1971) Explosions on 13 and 20-22 December 1970

The summit crater of On-take peak exploded on the 13th and on the 20th to 22nd of December 1970. During these explosions, volcanic smoke continuously went up about 1,000 m high.

Information Contacts: Y. Sawada, Seismological Division, JMA, Tokyo, Japan.


June 1976 (NSEB 01:09) Citation IconCite this Report


Mild Strombolian eruptions continue

Mild Strombolian eruptions continued, with smoke columns reaching heights of 100-1,000 m, rumblings and occasional ash falls.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo.


September 1976 (NSEB 01:12) Citation IconCite this Report


Pilots note unusually high "smoke" columns

TOA (domestic) airline pilots noted unusually high "smoke" columns from On-take summit crater in July (table 1). [This crater name, used in original SEAN reports (and Volcanoes of the World), should not be confused with the volcano of the same name on Honshu.]

Table 1. Summary of explosions and other observations from Suwanose-jima, October 1975-December 1985. White vapor was emitted during days not listed in the table for 1977-78. "NVO" for 1979-October 1982 data indicates no visual observation due to bad weather. Numbers in parentheses are the local observation times. Dashes indicate no data provided or unknown. Data have been combined from monthly Bulletin tables and JMA has added data missing from original reports, including May 1984 and 1985. Courtesy of JMA.

Date Time Period Plume Height (m) Activity
04 Oct 1975 -- 700 Sometimes moderate explosions
05 Oct 1975 -- 1000 Sometimes large explosions, ashfall
06 Oct 1975 -- 1500 Large explosions, ashfall
07 Oct 1975 -- -- Explosion
08 Oct 1975 -- 1000 Large explosion
09 Oct 1975 -- 500 Explosion
09 Nov 1975 -- 1500 Large explosion
10 Nov 1975 -- 600 Explosion
19 Nov 1975 -- 500 Large explosion
07 Dec 1975 -- 200 Sometimes small explosions
21 Dec 1975 -- 700 Frequent large explosions
21 Dec 1975 -- 400 Remarkable incandescent column, frequent large explosions
23 Dec 1975 -- 700 Explosion
24 Dec 1975 -- 400 Sometimes large explosions
25 Dec 1975 -- 700 Explosion
26 Dec 1975 -- 1000 Frequent large explosions
27 Dec 1975 -- 700 Large explosion
28 Dec 1975 -- 700 Moderate explosion
31 Dec 1975 -- 400 --
08 Jan 1976 -- 300 Large explosion
24 Jan 1976 -- 1000 Ashfall
25 Jan 1976 -- 1000 Large explosion, ashfall
26 Jan 1976 -- -- Ashfall
27 Jan 1976 -- 500 Large explosion, ashfall
28-29 Jan 1976 -- 1500 --
14 Feb 1976 -- -- Moderate explosion
15 Feb 1976 -- 800 Moderate explosion, ashfall
16 Feb 1976 -- -- Sometimes explosion sounds, ashfall
17 Feb 1976 -- -- Sometimes explosion sounds
18 Feb 1976 -- 300 Sometimes explosion sounds
19 Feb 1976 -- 700 Explosion
20 Feb 1976 -- 500 Moderate explosion
26 Feb 1976 -- -- Explosion
12 Mar 1976 -- 500 Frequent large explosions
13 Mar 1976 -- 700 Frequent large detonations
14 Mar 1976 -- 500 Sometimes moderate explosions
13 Apr 1976 -- -- Moderate detonation
14 Apr 1976 -- 300 Ashfall
15 Apr 1976 -- 300 Ashfall, moderate explosion
16 Apr 1976 -- 1000 Ashfall
10 May 1976 -- 500 Explosion
03 Jul 1976 -- 4200 Moderate detonation
04 Jul 1976 -- 3600-4200 TOA airline pilot observed ashcloud
07 Jul 1976 -- 3600 TOA airline pilot observed ashcloud
23 Jul 1976 -- 3000 Explosion, large ash cloud, ashfall
24 Jul 1976 -- 3000 Explosion, ashfall
04 Oct 1976 -- 500 Ashfall
12 Oct 1976 -- 500 Ashfall
01 Nov 1976 -- -- Ashfall
11 Jan 1977 -- 1200 One explosion
19-21 Mar 1977 -- 700 Ash ejection and ashfall
24-25 Mar 1977 -- -- Two explosions
01-03 Apr 1977 -- 1000 One explosion, ash ejections
10-11 Apr 1977 -- 3000 Ash ejections and ashfall
14-20 Apr 1977 -- 1000 Two explosions, ash ejections and ashfall
27-29 Apr 1977 -- 3000 Explosions, ash ejections
08 May 1977 -- -- One explosion
13-18 May 1977 -- 2000 Several explosions, ashfall
26 May 1977 -- 1000 One explosion
03-05 Jun 1977 -- 3000 Frequent explosions, incandescent column, ashfall
21-22 Jun 1977 -- 3000 Frequent explosions
09-10 Jul 1977 -- 4000 Ash ejections, one explosion
23 Jul 1977 -- -- Explosions
08-10 Aug 1977 -- 3000 Frequent explosions, incandescent ejecta
10-15 Sep 1977 -- 3000 Frequent explosions, ash ejections, ashfall
18 Sep 1977 -- 3000 Ash ejections and ashfall
23 Oct 1977 -- 1000 One ash ejection
26-30 Oct 1977 -- 2000 Ash ejections
14 Nov 1977 -- -- One explosion
19 Nov 1977 -- 2000 Ash ejections
06 Dec 1977 -- -- One explosion
23 Jan 1978 -- -- Three explosions
19 Mar 1978 -- 500 Two ash ejections
22-25 Mar 1978 -- 1000 Ash ejections
09 Apr 1978 -- 1000 Ash ejections
19-22 Apr 1978 -- 3000 Ash ejections and ashfall
01-03 May 1978 -- 500 Ash ejections and ashfall
31 May 1978 -- 500 Frequent explosions, incandescent column
01 Jun 1978 -- 500 Frequent explosions, incandescent column, ashfall
16-19 Jun 1978 -- -- Frequent explosions
02-05 Jul 1978 -- 700 Frequent explosions, incandescent column, ashfall
19-21 Jul 1978 -- 3000 Ash ejections and ashfall
07-10 Aug 1978 -- 3000 Frequent explosions, incandescent column, ashfall
24 Aug 1978 -- 2000 Ash ejections and ashfall
07 Sep 1978 -- 3000 Frequent explosions, ashfall
17 Sep 1978 -- -- One explosion
23-24 Sep 1978 -- 700 Frequent explosions, incandescence
10-12 Oct 1978 -- 5000 Frequent explosions, ashfall
24-28 Oct 1978 -- 3000 Frequent explosions, incandescence, ashfall
06-10 Nov 1978 -- 700 Explosions, incandescence, ashfall
19-22 Nov 1978 -- 500 Explosions, incandescent column, ashfall
04-05 Dec 1978 -- 300 Explosions
06 Feb 1979 -- 500 Explosions, incandescence
14-15 Feb 1979 -- 500 Explosions, ashfall
19 Feb 1979 -- 500 One explosion
22 Feb 1979 -- -- One explosion
11-13 Mar 1979 -- 500 Four explosions
05 Jun 1979 -- -- Incandescent column, explosions
20 Jul 1979 -- 500 Seven explosions, ash emissions
21 Jul 1979 -- 200 Ash emissions
05-06 Sep 1979 -- 2000 Frequent, strong explosions, incandescent columns, ashfall to sea
07 Sep 1979 -- 1000 Ash emissions
08 Sep 1979 -- 800 Ash emissions
09 Sep 1979 -- 2000 Frequent explosions
12 Sep 1979 -- 1000 Ten explosions
10 Dec 1979 -- 1500 Explosions, incandescent blocks, reflected glow
11 Dec 1979 -- -- Ash emissions
12 Dec 1979 -- -- "Flames" in crater
18 Dec 1979 -- 300 Three explosions
05-06 Feb 1980 -- 1500 About 10 explosions, incandescent column
21-22 Mar 1980 -- 1000 Many explosions
25-26 Apr 1980 -- 1500 Explosions: ashfall on inhabited areas
13 May 1980 -- -- Three explosions
18 May 1980 -- 500 Six explosions; persistent ash ejection
04-05 Jun 1980 -- 500 More than 25 explosions
16-19 Jul 1980 -- -- Many explosions
03-08 Aug 1980 -- 1500 Several tens of explosions; incandescent column
21-23 Aug 1980 -- 1000 More than 20 explosions; incandescent column
08-09 Sep 1980 -- 1000 More than 1000 explosions
20 Sep 1980 -- -- Three explosions
24-27 Sep 1980 -- 2000 More than 1000 explosions
25-27 Oct 1980 -- 500 Persistent ash ejection
08-10 Nov 1980 -- 1500 More than 1000 explosions
29 Nov 1980 -- 500 Persistent ash ejection
13 Dec 1980 -- -- Explosions
04-08 Jan 1981 -- 100-1000 Continuous ash cloud
29 Jan 1981 -- 500 Ten explosions
30 Jan 1981 -- 300 Two explosions
31 Jan 1981 -- NVO Two explosions
12 Feb 1981 -- 1000 One explosions
20 Feb 1981 -- 1000 Three explosions
26 Feb 1981 -- 500 16 explosions
17 Mar 1981 -- 1000 20 explosions
15 Apr 1981 -- NVO Many explosions
16 Apr 1981 -- NVO 16 explosions
26 Apr 1981 -- 500 Many explosions
14 May 1981 -- 500 Ten explosions
12 Jun 1981 -- 1500 Three explosions
13 Jun 1981 -- NVO Two explosions
15 Jun 1981 -- NVO Three explosions
16 Jun 1981 -- NVO Three explosions
29-30 Jun 1981 -- -- Many explosions
01-04 Jul 1981 -- NVO Many explosions
05 Jul 1981 -- 500 Ten explosions
06 Jul 1981 -- NVO Ten explosions
13 Jul 1981 -- NVO Three explosions
14 Jul 1981 -- 2000 Many explosions
15 Jul 1981 -- NVO Six explosions
26 Nov 1981 -- NVO Many explosions
27 Nov 1981 -- 1500 Many explosions
13 Dec 1981 -- 500 40-50 explosions; rumbling
14 Dec 1981 -- 500 Many explosions; rumbling
15 Dec 1981 -- 500 30-40 explosions; rumbling
16 Dec 1981 -- 500 Two explosions
23 Dec 1981 -- NVO Two explosions
02 Jan 1982 -- 1500 Four explosions
23 Jan 1982 -- 1000 2-3 explosions/hour
25 Jan 1982 -- 200 Ten explosions
26 Jan 1982 -- 500 Many explosions
27 Jan 1982 -- 300 12 explosions
28 Jan 1982 -- 300 Three explosions
03 Feb 1982 -- NVO Five explosions
06 Feb 1982 -- 200 Five explosions
07 Feb 1982 -- 200 One explosion
08 Feb 1982 -- 200 One explosion
13 Feb 1982 -- 1000 One explosion; rumbling
14-15 Feb 1982 -- 500 Many explosions; rumbling
16-17 Feb 1982 -- NVO Many explosions; rumbling
18 Feb 1982 -- 500 Many explosions; rumbling
19 Feb 1982 -- NVO Six explosions
22 Feb 1982 -- 1000 Three explosions
23 Feb 1982 -- NVO Four explosions
24 Feb 1982 -- NVO Three explosions
25 Feb 1982 -- 1000 Seven explosions; rumbling
26 Feb 1982 -- 500 Five explosions
09 Mar 1982 -- 1000 Many explosions; rumbling
10 Mar 1982 -- 1000 Many explosions; rumbling
11 Mar 1982 -- 500 Ten explosions
28 Mar 1982 -- NVO Ten explosions; rumbling
29 Mar 1982 -- NVO 20-25 explosions; rumbling
30 Mar 1982 -- 1000 Four explosions
31 Mar 1982 -- NVO Six explosions
01 Apr 1982 -- 1000 Two explosions
02 Apr 1982 -- 1000 Ten explosions
03 Apr 1982 -- NVO Three explosions
15 Apr 1982 -- 500 18-20 explosions; rumbling
17 Apr 1982 -- 500 5-6 explosions/hour
18 Apr 1982 -- NVO 2-3 explosions/hour
19 Apr 1982 -- NVO Ten explosions; rumbling
05 May 1982 -- 200 One explosion
06 May 1982 -- 1000 Many explosions; rumbling
27 May 1982 -- 1000 One explosion
Jun-Jul 1982 -- NVO Quiet
16 Aug 1982 -- 1000 Four explosions
17 Aug 1982 -- 500 Four explosions
02 Sep 1982 -- 500 Five explosions
16 Sep 1982 -- NVO Many explosions
25 Sep 1982 -- 200 Nine explosions
26 Sep 1982 -- 200 Three explosions
05 Oct 1982 -- 500 Three explosions; rumbling
06 Oct 1982 -- NVO Six explosions
07 Oct 1982 -- NVO Seven explosions
08 Oct 1982 -- NVO Ten explosions; rumbling
09 Oct 1982 -- 300 Seven explosions
17 Oct 1982 -- NVO One explosion
03 Nov 1982 0500-2200 LT 500 3-4 explosions/hour
04 Nov 1982 0500-2200 LT 500 5-6 explosions/hour
05 Nov 1982 0700-2100 LT 500 5-6 explosions/hour
06 Nov 1982 0500-2200 LT 500 3 explosions/hour
07 Nov 1982 0500-2200 LT 500 1-2 explosions/hour
23 Nov 1982 0900-1300 LT 500 Five explosions
15 Dec 1982 -- 500 Ashfall
17 Dec 1982 1300-2000 LT 1000 15-16 explosions
18 Dec 1982 -- 500 Ashfall
19 Dec 1982 0900-2100 LT 1000 2-3 explosions/minute
20 Dec 1982 0600-2100 LT 1000 1-2 explosions/5 minutes
29 Dec 1982 1000-1300 LT 500 Two explosions
17 Jan 1983 0630-0800 LT 500 4-6 explosions/minute
17 Jan 1983 0800-2000 LT -- 3-4 explosions/hour
18 Jan 1983 0600-2200 LT Unknown 3-5 explosions/hour
19 Jan 1983 0600-1700 LT Unknown 15-20 explosions
28 Jan 1983 1700-2200 LT 500 25-30 explosions
29 Jan 1983 0500-1800 LT 700 2-3 explosions/minute
29 Jan 1983 1800-2200 LT -- 4-5 explosions/hour
30 Jan 1983 0500-1600 LT 1000 4-5 explosions/hour
10 Feb 1983 -- 200 A few explosions
11 Feb 1983 1900-2100 LT 500 1-2 explosions/minute
26 Feb 1983 1530-2300 LT 1000 5-6 explosions/minute
27 Feb 1983 0500-1200 LT 1000 Ten explosions
04 Mar 1983 -- Unknown One explosion
11 Mar 1983 1400-2300 LT 1000 2-3 explosions/minute
12 Mar 1983 0600-1200 LT Unknown 12 explosions
13 Mar 1983 0800-1200 LT -- Three explosions
28 Apr 1983 1400-1600 LT Unknown 3-5 explosions/minute
29 Apr 1983 1500-1900 LT 500 Three explosions
08 May 1983 0700-1500 LT 200 Six explosions
11 May 1983 1400-1500 LT 200 Three explosions
12 May 1983 1300-1500 LT 200 Three explosions
08 Jun 1983 1400-1900 LT 1500 Seven explosions
09 Jun 1983 1500-1800 LT 1500 Four explosions
10 Jun 1983 0900-2000 LT 500 Seven explosions
05-06 Jul 1983 2100-0300 LT -- Incandescent column
27 Jul 1983 1200-1730 LT 500 Two explosions
30 Sep 1983 0500-0900 LT 1500 7-9 explosions/hour
01 Oct 1983 0500-0900 LT 1000 17 explosions
17 Oct 1983 0600-1800 LT Unknown 15 explosions
18 Oct 1983 0530-1130 LT 1000 Five explosions
27 Oct 1983 1400-2300 LT 500 Rumbling
28 Oct 1983 0500-1330 LT 1000 Rumbling
29 Oct 1983 0500- ? LT 1000 Rumbling
22 Nov 1983 1000-2200 LT 500 10-15 explosions/minute
23 Nov 1983 0920-1100 LT 500 15-20 explosions/minute
23 Nov 1983 1400-1700 LT -- 15-20 explosions/minute
25 Nov 1983 0600-1800 LT 300 16 explosions
03 Dec 1983 1500-2300 LT 500 2-10 explosions/minute
04 Dec 1983 1000-2200 LT 300 Six explosions
18 Dec 1983 0400-1500 LT 500 2-3 explosions/minute
18 Dec 1983 1500-2200 LT -- 10 explosions
19 Dec 1983 0500-0900 LT 500 15-20 explosions/minute
19 Dec 1983 1500-2300 LT -- 20 explosions
20 Dec 1983 0400-0700 LT 500 2-3 explosions/minute
20 Dec 1983 0700-2100 LT -- 20 explosions
02 Jan 1984 0500-2000 LT 300 13 explosions
26 Jan 1984 0600-2200 LT 300 13 explosions
27 Jan 1984 500 5-7 explosions/hour
28 Jan 1984 0800-2300 LT 500 30-40 explosions/hour
29 Jan 1984 0500-1200 LT 500 Seven explosions
30 Jan 1984 0400-1500 LT 500 10 explosions
14-16 Mar 1984 -- -- 4-5 explosions/minute
18 Mar 1984 0500-2300 LT -- 10 explosions
12 Apr 1984 2100-2300 LT 1000 Seven explosions
15 Apr 1984 0730-1300 LT -- Seven explosions
15 Apr 1984 1700-2200 LT -- 5-6 explosions
16 Apr 1984 0700-1700 LT -- Six explosions
17 Apr 1984 0500-1000 LT -- 12 explosions
18 Apr 1984 0600-1000 LT -- Three explosions
15 May 1984 -- -- 12-13 explosions
28 Jun 1985 -- 2000 Airplane pilot saw the ash cloud, light ashfall
03 Aug 1985 -- -- Airplane pilot saw the ash cloud
14-15 Sep 1985 -- -- Frequent explosion sounds
01 Oct 1985 -- -- Airplane pilot saw the ash cloud
17-21 Nov 1985 -- -- Frequent explosion sounds
05-06 Dec 1985 -- -- Frequent explosion sounds

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


May 1977 (NSEB 02:05) Citation IconCite this Report


Frequent explosions and considerable ashfall

Frequent explosions from the summit crater occurred 26-29 April (table 1). Considerable ash fell nearby from eruptive clouds that rose 3,000 m above the vent. Explosion sounds and air shocks were often detected and glow was seen on one or two occasions.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


June 1977 (NSEB 02:06) Citation IconCite this Report


Explosions continue but are less frequent

Strombolian activity continued into May, but explosions were less frequent.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo; D. Shackelford, CA.


August 1977 (NSEB 02:08) Citation IconCite this Report


Eruptions continue; considerable ash deposition

Eruptions from On-take summit crater continued through July, with ash clouds rising 2,000-3,000 m and considerable ash deposition.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo; D. Shackelford, CA.


October 1977 (NSEB 02:10) Citation IconCite this Report


Activity continued during August and September

Strombolian activity continued during August and September. An eruption at 1000 on 14 September produced clouds that rose 2,000 m above On-take.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


August 1979 (SEAN 04:08) Citation IconCite this Report


Activity since January 1977 tabulated

Activity has been observed only once since mid-March (table 1), in contrast to the pattern of the preceding 26 months. From January 1977-March 1979 there were 1-4 periods of tephra ejection per month, each lasting up to a few days.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


September 1979 (SEAN 04:09) Citation IconCite this Report


Six hours of explosions; air shocks rattle doors and windows 90 km away

"On-take vent exploded on 5 September, after a few small explosions on 20 July (table 1). Explosive activity continued from about 2000 on 5 September to 0100 on 6 September. Incandescent columns rose 500 m above the crater and explosions occurred every 10 seconds during the most active stage on the 5th. Explosive sounds (rumblings) were heard at Yaku-shima Island, 90 km NE of Suwanose-jima, and windows and doors on Yaku-shima were rattled by air vibrations. Ash fell in the sea E of Suwanose-jima.

"A village of 65 people lies on Suwanose-jima Island. People there said that the activity on 5 September was one of the strongest of the many explosive periods since 1956. No damage was caused by the explosions. Explosions at the volcano had become less frequent this year than before."

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


January 1980 (SEAN 05:01) Citation IconCite this Report


Explosions; incandescent tephra; 1979 activity summarized

A loud explosion from On-take summit crater occurred at about 0700 on 10 December, after three months of quiescence. The initial explosion produced a 1.5-km-high cloud, and smaller explosions continued for about 3 hours. Ash clouds then decreased, but ejections of incandescent material and reflected glow were seen that night. Activity decreased further to weak ash emission the next day, although glow in the summit crater were seen from the air on 12 December. The explosions caused no damage on the island.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


July 1980 (SEAN 05:07) Citation IconCite this Report


Tephra ejection

Aerial observers reported that tephra clouds rose to about 1.8 km above On-take vent on 18-19 May.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo; D. Shackelford, CA.


December 1980 (SEAN 05:12) Citation IconCite this Report


December 1979-December 1980 explosions tabulated

Strombolian explosions have occurred almost every month since November 1956 from On-take, the highest point on Suwanose-jima Island. Eruptive activity has typically lasted from one to a few days. The only damage from the 1980 explosions (table 1) was caused by minor ashfalls on crops. Between explosive periods, white vapor rose a few hundred meters above the vent.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


October 1981 (SEAN 06:10) Citation IconCite this Report


January-August 1981 explosions tabulated

During 1981, explosions from Suwanose-jima have been recorded every month through August. Observations were made from 3 km S of the active B crater (figure 1) and from Nakano-shima Island, 26 km NE. An explosion is registered when visual observation of an eruption cloud is correlated with the sound of an explosion. Aircraft crews reported three eruption clouds: 28 June, cloud height 1.2 km; 17 July, 2.4 km; and 10 August, 2.7 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Topographic map of Suwanose-jima Island; the active vent is in Crater B. Courtesy of JMA.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


November 1981 (SEAN 06:11) Citation IconCite this Report


Three days of explosions

After two months of quiesence, Crater B was active 25-28 November. Ash was ejected on 25 November. Explosive sounds were recorded from about 0200 on the 26th. Activity intensified to register 5-6 explosions/minute from 1230 to 1700 that day, then declined to about 10/hour. From 1700 on the 27th to 0200 on the 28th about four explosions/hour were recorded. On 28 November activity was limited to continuous emission of white vapor. The ash and blocks ejected during the activity caused no damage.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


November 1982 (SEAN 07:11) Citation IconCite this Report


November 1981-October 1982 activity

No damage was reported from 1982 activity, but there was heavy ashfall on the inhabited, S end of the island on 7 October. The eruptive activity typically lasted from one to a few days. Between active periods, white vapor rose a few hundred meters above the vent.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


March 1984 (SEAN 09:03) Citation IconCite this Report


Summary of activity, November 1982-January 1984

Strombolian activity has been recorded almost every month, November 1982-January 1984 (table 1). No damage was reported, although there were often heavy ashfalls on the inhabited area of the island, along the shore 3.5 km SSW of the active vent.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


July 1985 (SEAN 10:07) Citation IconCite this Report


Explosions resume; 2.5 km plume; ashfall 25 km SE

Occasional Strombolian activity continued until May 1984, but no explosion sounds had been reported since June (table 1). During the afternoon of 28 June 1985, an aircraft pilot flying near Suwanose-jima saw a plume rising to an altitude of 2-2.5 km (table 1). At Nakano-shima, about 25 km NE of the volcano, slight ashfall was observed, but no explosions were heard.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


July 1986 (SEAN 11:07) Citation IconCite this Report


Explosions cause 200 m plume

Explosive sounds were heard . . . twice on the morning of 28 July, and a 200-m-high plume was observed from an airplane at around 1200.

Information Contacts: JMA.


November 1986 (SEAN 11:11) Citation IconCite this Report


500-600-m-high ash plume

On 2 October, observers aboard a Nihon Kinkyori Airways plane saw the volcano emitting a white plume to ~500-600 m height. An ash plume was sometimes seen from 30 km NE of the summit (in Nakanoshima) by the JMA Mobile Volcanological Observation Team.

Information Contacts: JMA.


January 1987 (SEAN 12:01) Citation IconCite this Report


Plume to 1,200-1,500 m

An airplane pilot saw a plume rising to 1,200-1,500 m altitude at 1318 on 11 December.

Information Contacts: JMA.


May 1987 (SEAN 12:05) Citation IconCite this Report


Ash eruption

On 24 April, an airplane pilot saw an ash plume rising to 3,000 m altitude.

Information Contacts: JMA.


April 1988 (SEAN 13:04) Citation IconCite this Report


Small explosions; light ashfall

Small explosions were heard by residents of the island at a rate of 5-6/day between 0500 and 1500 on 13 April. Ash plumes rose 500-600 m, sometimes accompanied by roaring sounds or air shocks. On 15 April, continued 500-600-m-high ash emission began at 0530. A Japan Air System (formerly TDA airline) pilot saw an ash cloud moving S at 1,800-2,100 m altitude (1,000-1,300 m above the summit) at 0848. A light ashfall was observed at a harbor on the island, but no explosions were heard and no air shocks were felt that day. No explosions were reported the following day.

Information Contacts: JMA.


July 1988 (SEAN 13:07) Citation IconCite this Report


3,000-m ash cloud

At 1430 on 18 July, a Southwest Airlines crew observed a 3,000-m-high ash cloud.

Information Contacts: JMA.


October 1988 (SEAN 13:10) Citation IconCite this Report


Plume seen from aircraft

A jetliner crew observed a 2.0-km-high plume . . . on 9 August at 1630.

Information Contacts: Y. Sawada, JMA; D. Shackelford, Fullerton, CA.


March 1989 (SEAN 14:03) Citation IconCite this Report


Explosions and ashfall; 1988 activity summarized

On 1, 14, and 16 January, residents . . . heard explosions. Ash fell to the S on 21 and 24 January in the the only inhabited part of the small island. On 7 February at 1225, an explosion sound was heard, and on 28 February, a 1,000-m-high ash plume deposited large amounts of ash to the S. At 1640 on 3 March, the crew of a JAS aircraft observed a 2,000-m ash cloud. A summary of [1987-88] explosions and ashfall is shown in table 2.

Table 2. Eruptive episodes at Suwanose-jima, January 1987-October 1988. Courtesy of JMA.

Date Time Period Plume Height (m) Activity
05 Jan 1988 -- -- Four explosions
16 Jan 1988 -- 300 Five explosions
17 Jan 1988 -- 500 Four explosions
18 Jan 1988 -- 300 One explosion
29 Feb 1988 -- -- Explosion at 1325 caused air shock
08 Mar 1988 -- 500 Eleven explosions accompanied by air shock
28 Mar 1988 -- -- Three explosions accompanied by air shock
13 Apr 1988 -- 500 Five or six explosions per minute
14 Apr 1988 -- 500 40-50 explosions
15 Apr 1988 -- 2000 TOA Domestic Airlines pilot saw the plume rising 2000 m
16 Apr 1988 -- 500 Ashfall in the S part of the island
18 Jul 1988 -- 3000 Southwest Airlines pilot saw the ash plume rising
09 Aug 1988 -- 2000 Japan Air System pilot saw the plume rising 2000 m
13 Aug 1988 -- 500 Ashfall in the S part of the island
29 Aug 1988 -- 300 Several explosions, ashfall
03 Oct 1988 -- 500 Ashfall in the S part of the island
06 Oct 1988 -- -- Rumbling, ashfall in the S
07 Oct 1988 -- -- Rumbling, ashfall in the S

Information Contacts: JMA.


June 1989 (SEAN 14:06) Citation IconCite this Report


Frequent explosions; ashfall on inhabited area

. . . March-April activity is summarized in table 2. No explosions were observed in May, but several tens of explosions 22-23 June were accompanied by detonations and air shocks. Ash fell on the S part of the small island volcano, in the only inhabited area.

Information Contacts: JMA.


July 1989 (SEAN 14:07) Citation IconCite this Report


Vigorous explosions continue

Explosions continued at Suwanose-jima. On 22 and 23 June 1989, several tens of eruptions were reported, accompanied by audible detonations, felt air shocks, and ashfalls on the inhabited S side of the island.

Information Contacts: JMA; D. Shackelford, Fullerton, CA.


December 1990 (BGVN 15:12) Citation IconCite this Report


Explosions and ash emissions

Eruptive activity was weak in the first half of 1990, but explosions became frequent in late July, and activity was most vigorous in October and November. The highest ash cloud (1,500 m) was observed, and ash-related agricultural damage was reported, in late October. Glow from the most active crater . . . was seen at night on 27 October and 10-15 November.

Information Contacts: JMA.


October 1991 (BGVN 16:10) Citation IconCite this Report


Ash ejection

Late-October explosions from the summit cone of On-take produced ash clouds a few hundred meters high and caused slight ashfalls on the island. The explosions were the most vigorous since similar events in January.

Information Contacts: JMA.


May 1992 (BGVN 17:05) Citation IconCite this Report


Tephra clouds from frequent explosions

Island residents reported frequent explosions, ashfalls, and rumbling in early and mid-May. Ash plumes were observed rising to 1.5-2.0 km elevation by Japanese airline pilots on 1-3 May, and a plume was visible on a NOAA weather satellite image at 1538 on 1 May.

Recently, the volcano had been active several times a year, with frequent explosions producing ash clouds and detectable ashfall. During peaks in activity, ash clouds rose to 2-3 km height and tens of small explosions occurred per minute. Eruptive episodes typically lasted for a few days to a month. Explosions had been reported earlier in 1992 on 1-4, 10, and 25-31 January, 4-14 and 21-28 February, 2-4 and 11-12 March, and 15-16 April.

Information Contacts: JMA; W. Gould, NOAA.


October 1992 (BGVN 17:10) Citation IconCite this Report


Explosions eject blocks

Island residents reported an increase in activity on the morning of 20 October. Rumbling was heard at 2230 and frequent detonations began the following morning. Numerous blocks were ejected on 22 October with explosive activity decreasing after the 23rd. Explosions in 1992 had been reported 1-3 times a month through May, and on 2 June, 9-10 July, 21-24 September, and 11 October.

Information Contacts: JMA.


November 1992 (BGVN 17:11) Citation IconCite this Report


Frequent explosions; lava fountains

Explosive activity . . . ended by 4 November. Additional explosive activity with frequent detonations occurred on 19-22 November. Incandescent lava fountains were observed on the night of 21 November. No damage resulted.

Information Contacts: JMA.


March 1993 (BGVN 18:03) Citation IconCite this Report


Sporadic, weak ash eruptions

Sporadic, weak ash eruptions [in March] resulted in slight ashfall on inhabited areas . . . .

Information Contacts: JMA.


April 1993 (BGVN 18:04) Citation IconCite this Report


Sporadic, weak ash eruptions

Sporadic, weak ash eruptions continued in April. The island's residents heard explosions [during] 22-26 April.

Information Contacts: JMA.


May 1993 (BGVN 18:05) Citation IconCite this Report


Weak ash explosions

Island residents observed weak ash eruptions and heard explosions in late May.

Information Contacts: JMA.


August 1993 (BGVN 18:08) Citation IconCite this Report


Eruption produces ashfall up to 100 km away

Eruptive activity in mid-August caused ashfall on this island and on other islands 100 km NE. Pilots from six domestic airlines reported ash clouds up to 3 km above sea level near the volcano on 14-18 August. Seismic monitoring equipment on the island detected no unusual activity.

Information Contacts: JMA.


December 1993 (BGVN 18:12) Citation IconCite this Report


Small explosive eruptions

Weak ash eruptions were observed and explosions were heard by island residents through December 1993 following eruptive activity in mid-August . . . .

Information Contacts: JMA.


December 1994 (BGVN 19:12) Citation IconCite this Report


Intermittent weak eruptions throughout 1994 cause ashfall on the island

Weak ash eruptions were observed and explosion sounds were heard by local residents throughout 1994. Heavy ash sometimes fell in a village on the island. Occasional ash emissions occurred in mid-February, with ashfall reported on the 11th. Emissions began again in mid-March, with ash falls on the island on 19 and 27 March. The next month, ash eruptions took place on 3-4 and 30 April. Frequent ash ejections during 8-12 May also caused ashfall on the island; detonations were heard on the 8th. Ash ejections were again observed on 14-21 and 29-30 July, with ashfall on the 15th and 20th. Detonations and ashfall were again reported on 12 August. Ashfall was frequent in September and the second half of October, with larger volumes on 13-14 and 31 October. Ash emission in December was observed at the beginning and end of the month, with ashfall on 1-4 and 31 December; rumbling was heard the night of the 3rd.

Information Contacts: JMA; Y. Sawada, JMA; D. Shackleford, Fullerton, CA.


December 1995 (BGVN 20:11) Citation IconCite this Report


Continued minor eruptive activity throughout much of 1995

Eruptive activity took place from March to June and from August to December 1995. Some ashfalls were observed at a village 4 km SSW of the crater. The two historically active summit craters and typically have Strombolian eruptions.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan.


January 1996 (BGVN 21:01) Citation IconCite this Report


Small eruptions in January; nine explosions throughout 1995

Monitoring from the Sakurajima Volcanological Observatory revealed nine explosions from Suwanose-jima in 1995. According to the Japan Meteorological Agency and the Kagoshima Prefectural Government, small eruptions during 10-13 January 1996 sent plumes 300-600 m above the volcano and caused ashfall to the S. Activity has been high since 1950, with 1-2 ash emissions every month, and some Strombolian explosions.

Information Contacts: Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html).


March 1996 (BGVN 21:03) Citation IconCite this Report


Weak ash eruptions in early March cause ashfalls

Weak ash eruptions were observed on 5 and 6 March; occasional ashfalls were reported on the island. Nine explosions were observed in 1995 and there were small eruptions during 10-13 January (BGVN 21:01). Activity has been high since 1950.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan.


June 1996 (BGVN 21:06) Citation IconCite this Report


Strong eruptions produce volcanic ash clouds

On 2 June, an aviation notice to airmen (NOTAM) indicated a volcanic ash cloud to 4,600 m emanating from Suwanose-jima. A second NOTAM at 1515 on 2 June noted that the ash cloud top was at 2,100 m. No discernible ash plume was evident in GMS satellite data from the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) through 1732 on 2 June.

The Kagoshima Prefectural Government confirmed to JMA that emissions on 1-2 June caused ashfall. Ashfall was also observed on the island on 4 June.

The Sakura-jima Volcanological Observatory of Kyushu University reported that activity has continued at the same level since 1994, with nearly constant A-type earthquakes. Ash emissions have occurred this year on 10-13 January, 23 February, 5-6 March, and 14 April. The eruption column in March rose 500 m above the volcano.

Information Contacts: Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html); Jim Lynch, NOAA/NESDIS Synoptic Analysis Branch (SAB), Room 401, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA; Volcanological Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


July 1996 (BGVN 21:07) Citation IconCite this Report


Explosive activity continues

According to Kagoshima Prefectural Government, a weak ash eruption was observed on 14 July. On 22 July a civil aviator reported an ash cloud at ~1.5 km altitude.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan


January 1997 (BGVN 22:01) Citation IconCite this Report


Weak ash emission and rumbling in late December

On 26, 27, and 28 December, the Government of the Kagoshima Prefecture reported weak ash emission and rumbling from Suwanose-jima. A small quantity of ashfall was observed on 27 December.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


June 1997 (BGVN 22:06) Citation IconCite this Report


Ashfall in March and continued ash emissions in April

An ash column 500-600 m high above the summit resulted in ashfall starting at about noon on 24 March and continuing until the evening of the following day. Ash emissions on 16-17 April sent a column 500-700 m high. Seismicity was characterized by numerous B-type earthquakes in March (~50/month), and by volcanic tremors during April (~ 200/month).

Information Contacts: Sakurajima Volcanological Observatory (SVO), Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Sakurajima-cho, Kagoshima 89114, Japan; Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


February 2001 (BGVN 26:02) Citation IconCite this Report


Two subsidiary craters discovered; elevated activity in December 2000

An observer on Suwanose-jima reported seeing "smoke" rise from NE of the summit crater at about 1700 on 19 December 2000. The following day, Kazuhiro Ishihara from Sakura-jima Volcano Research Center (SVRC, formerly Sakura-jima Volcano Observatory, SVO) of Kyoto University inspected the crater area during a helicopter flyover. He observed an ash-laden, high-temperature gas emission from the main active crater, On-take, and from two newly formed craters on the outer NE slope of the main crater (figures 2 and 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Topographic map of Suwanose-jima illustrating the main active crater (1), On-take, and the newly discovered craters (2, 3). Thick textured lines are crater rims. Contour interval is 100 m. After a map by SVRC.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Photo of the NE slope of Suwanose-jima showing the main active crater (1), On-take, and two subsidiary craters (2, 3). Courtesy of SVRC.

Subsequent observations on 24 December by Masato Iguchi and Daisuke Miki, both of SVRC, revealed more about the nature of the craters' activities. Craters 2 and 3 were ~40 m and ~200 m away from the main crater rim, respectively. Crater 2 had a diameter of ~25 m, and crater 3 had a diameter of ~10 m. The craters were thermally surveyed from a helicopter. On-take (crater 1) had a temperature of ~450°C, and emitted light-colored vapor. Crater 2 released an ash-laden plume and had a temperature of ~100°C. Crater 3, which had a temperature of ~270°C, ejected gas and a small amount of ash.

Seismicity recorded by SVRC showed that ~10 deep volcanic (A-type) earthquakes occurred monthly, an increase since fall 1999. Shallow volcanic (B-type) earthquakes had also increased since early 2000 with the occurrence of ~50-300 events monthly. Researchers using GPS techniques discovered that deformation had increased the distance between Suwanose-jima and Nakano-shima, a neighboring island, by 1 cm. SVRC indicated that activity was elevated, but that it did not imply an immediate large-scale eruption.

Information Contacts: Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University (URL: http://www.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/); Setsuya Nakada and Hidefumi Watanabe, Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html).


July 2001 (BGVN 26:07) Citation IconCite this Report


Explosive eruptions in May and July

Several eruptions occurred at Suwanose-jima in May-July 2001. Beginning on the morning of 9 May 2001 volcanic activity increased at Suwanose-jima when a tremor event commenced (figure 4). The tremor increased at 1100 and became more violent at 2100.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Daily eruptions, tremor events, and B and A earthquakes registered at Suwanose-jima up to 11 May. Here, an eruption is defined as a volcanic earthquake, associated with an acoustic signal of more than 1 Pa. Courtesy of the Japanese Meteorological Agency.

On 11 May an eruption produced ash clouds that rose to 1.8-7.6 km altitude. A seismo-acoustical record of an eruption signal on 10 May is shown on figure 5. Abundant ash fell on 11 May [in the village ~4 km SSW of the active crater].

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Seismo-acoustical record of an eruption signal received at Suwanose-jima on 10 May. The bottom panel shows the requisite acoustic signal that was recorded by a microphone. Courtesy of the Japanese Meteorological Agency.

Vigorous eruptions on the evening of 12 May and the morning of 13 May deposited up to 3 cm of ash in the village (figure 6). At 0900 on 14 May the eruption seemed to have stopped.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Photo taken from a helicopter of the beginning of the 12 May eruption at Suwanose-jima. Courtesy of the Japanese Meteorological Agency.

The Sakurajima Volcano Observatory also reported that plumes associated with volcanic tremor events have been observed at Suwanose-jima since the new crater was formed during the December 2000 eruption.

Volcanic tremor was also detected near Suwanose-jima's On-take (Otake) crater beginning at 2200 on 25 July and lasting until at least 26 July. JMA reported that an eruption on 26 July at 1430 produced a volcanic plume that rose to 1.3 km above the crater and drifted to the S. That day seismometers ~2 km SW of the crater recorded explosions at 0501, 0558, 0935, and 1055. Ash fell [in the village] the morning of 26 July.

Information Contacts: Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan; Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan (URL: http://www.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/); Setsuya Nakada and Hidefumi Watanabe, Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html).


July 2002 (BGVN 27:07) Citation IconCite this Report


Volcanic tremor, plumes, and ash eruptions during October 2001-August 2002

The Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported that, following the latest eruptive activity that had ended on 30 July, an eruption began around 1400 on 11 October 2001 at Otake Crater. Volcanic tremor had started around 1200 on 11 October and continued through 15 October. Up to 11 explosions occurred. An acoustic microphone installed on the island recorded four shock waves associated with larger explosions.

On 18 June 2002 during 1130-1300 a plume was observed (figure 7), and on the morning of 19 August 2002, JMA issued a volcanic advisory for Suwanose-jima. Volcanic tremor events associated with continuous acoustic signals (the largest so far in 2002) occurred for 20- to 30-minute periods around 0000 and 0630, and also during 0940-0950, 1410-1500, 1810-1815, and 1920-1930. Small tremor events also occurred. Witnesses in [the village 4 km SSW of the crater] heard continuous rumblings and explosion sounds every 2-3 seconds. The summit was covered with clouds and abundant ash drifted SW and SE. The summit crater emitted steam to an unknown height. A large plume was seen on satellite imagery on 19 August (figure 8). Eruption clouds were visible on 10, 16, and 20 August 2002 (figure 9).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Satellite image of the plume from Suwanose-Jima volcano observed at 1132 (local time) on 18 June 2002. The plume was visible from 1130-1300. Courtesy Charles Holliday, AFWA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Satellite view showing plume emitted from Suwanose-jima on 19 August 2002 at 1808 (local time). Courtesy Charles Holliday, AFWA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Eruption clouds emitted from Suwanose-jima at 1640 on 10 August 2002. The clouds were observed through live camera images provided by the Satellite Image Network Group (SiNG). Courtesy N. Uchida, JMA.

On 21 and 22 August JMA reported that eruptive activity continued but at a lower level. On 20 August, volcanic tremor events occurred during 0115-0120 and 0625-0655. Witnesses in [the] village reported that the rumbling noises became weaker, though they were sometimes accompanied by large explosion sounds. Ashfall occurred in Naze city on Amami-oshima island (~140 km S) during the afternoon. Faint ashfall was observed ~4 km SSW of the summit on 20 and 21 August.

Observations from the air on 21 August revealed the December 2000 crater (BGVN 26:02) generating an ash cloud to 1.5 km above the crater that was drifting S.

Information Contacts: N. Uchida, Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan; Volcano Research Center (VRC), Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html); Charles Holliday, Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), Satellite Applications Branch, Offutt AFB, NE 68113-4039; Satellite Image Network Group (SiNG), Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890, Japan.


April 2003 (BGVN 28:04) Citation IconCite this Report


Ash explosions in September and December 2002, and activity in January 2003

Though the volcano had been relatively quiet since 26 August 2002 (BGVN 27:07), the Japan Meteorological Agency reported that explosive eruptions became frequent on the morning of 12 September 2002. Rumbling was heard intermittently at a location ~4 km SSW of the summit, and light ashfall was observed on 12 September. Explosions occurred at 0816, 1246, 1746, and 1754 on 12 September, and at 0853, 1016, and 1027 on 13 September.

A pilot report contained in the Kagoshima Airport weather observation issued at 1000 on 5 December 2002 noted a plume estimated to be between 900 and 1,200 m altitude. The U.S. Air Force Weather Agency noted that the plume was also seen on DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) imagery at 1034 and on NASA Terra MODIS imagery at 1055 on 5 December.

The REAL-Volc Project at the Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, has detected several thermal anomalies on Suwanose-jima since they started an AVHRR monitoring system in 2001. Anomalies were seen on 11 October 2001, 20 November 2001, 30 December 2001, 20 April 2002, and 12 January 2003.

Information Contacts: Naokuni Uchida, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA-Fukuoka Center), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/); Takayuki Kaneko, Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html); Charles Holliday, U.S. Air Force Weather Agency, 106 Peacekeeper Drive, Ste 2NE, Offut AFB, NE 68113-4039, USA (URL: http://www.557weatherwing.af.mil/).


March 2004 (BGVN 29:03) Citation IconCite this Report


Sporadic eruptions in 2003 and in January 2004, one to 2.4 km altitude

Suwanose-jima volcano was last reported in BGVN 28:04, when activity was noted in September and December 2002, with thermal anomalies continuing into January 2003. HIGP MODIS thermal imagery revealed only one alert in the year to 13 April 2004, that being on 4 July 2003. NASA Terra and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program imagery dated 7-8 November 2003 showed an ash plume rising from Suwanose-jima to an estimated height of 2,400 m (figure 10) on those days.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Ash plume from Suwanose-jima on 8 November 2003 imaged by the MODIS instrument on the NASA AQUA satellite. Courtesy Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Charles Holliday.

According to Tokyo VAAC reports, using information from the Japanese Meteorological Agency, explosions also took place at Suwanose-jima on 15 December 2003 at 1946, and 21 December at 1828, each of which produced plumes to an unknown height. The VAAC reported several small emissions on 27 and 28 December, again rising to unknown heights and an eruption on 28 December at 0820 rising to ~ 1.5 km altitude and extending E. On 2, 4 and 21-22 January 2004 small explosions produced ash plumes to unknown heights.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/); HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Charles Holliday, Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), Satellite Applications Branch, Offutt AFB, NE 68113-4039, USA.


July 2005 (BGVN 30:07) Citation IconCite this Report


Eruptions during April 2004-July 2005 send plumes to varying heights

Several small eruptions during December 2003 and January 2004 at Suwanose-jima produced ash plumes to unknown heights (BGVN 29:03). Little activity was observed during the first four months of 2004. From the end of April 2004 to the end of July 2005, numerous eruptions and explosions produced plumes reported by the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), including some observed by pilots (table 3).

Table 3. Summary of activity at Suwanose-jima from April 2004 to July 2005 based on information from the Tokyo VAAC. "--" indicates data not reported or unknown.

Date Time Period Plume Altitude (km) Drift Direction Activity
28 Apr 2004 -- 3 SE Ash emission
01 May 2004 0906 -- -- Explosion
07 Jun 2004 -- 2 E Gas plume
08 Jun 2004 -- 2 E Gas and ash
09 Jun 2004 1003 1.8 E Ash plume
09 Jun 2004 1300 -- -- Ash plume
30 Jun-05 Jul 2004 various max 1.9 -- Several explosions
30 Nov 2004 1607 1.2 -- Eruption
20 Dec 2004 -- 1.8 SE Eruption
21 Dec 2004 -- -- SE Eruption
22 Dec 2004 -- -- -- Ash plume
24 Dec 2004 -- -- -- Ash plume
25 Dec 2004 -- -- -- Ash plume
27 Dec 2004 -- -- -- Ash plume
29 Dec 2004 -- 1.2 -- Ash plume
01 Jan 2005 -- -- -- Eruption
04 Jan 2005 -- -- -- Eruption
06 Mar 2005 -- 1.5 -- Ash emission
08 Mar 2005 -- 1.2 -- Ash emission
09 Mar 2005 -- 1.8 -- Ash plume
26 Apr 2005 -- 1.2 E Eruption
26 May-31 May 2005 various max 2.1 -- Several ash explosions
01 Jun-06 Jun 2005 various Several ash explosions 1.8 --
06 Jul 2005 various -- -- Several ash explosions
27 Jul 2005 -- 0.8 -- Eruption with ash
28 Jul 2005 -- 2.4 -- Ash plume

Information Contacts: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan (URL: https://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/).


November 2007 (BGVN 32:11) Citation IconCite this Report


Eruptions of July 2005-December 2007 send plumes to varying heights

Suwanose-jima, in the East China sea, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. Our last report on Suwanose-jima (BGVN 30:07) tabulated the seismicity and the numerous ash plumes seen between April 2004 and July 2005. The current report continues the tabulation from August 2005 to December 2007 (table 4).

Table 4. Summary of activity reported at Suwanose-jima from August 2005 to December 2007, based on information from the Tokyo VAAC. "--" indicates that data were not reported.

Date Activity Plume Altitude (km) Drift Direction
11 Aug-12 Aug 2005 Small eruptions ~ 3.4 --
22 Sep 2005 Plume ~ 1.8 W
07 Oct-09 Oct 2005 Eruptions max. 1.8 SW, E, SE
01 Jan 2006 Explosions -- --
10 Jan 2006 Explosions ~ 1.8 E
24 Jan 2006 Plume 1.5 E
28 Jan 2006 Plume max. 1.8 W
29 Jan 2006 Explosion -- --
31 Jan 2006 Plume 1.5 W
01 Feb 2006 Explosions -- --
06 Feb-07 Feb 2006 Explosions 1.2 NW
08 Feb-10 Feb 2006 Plumes max. 1.5 E and SE
15 Feb-18 Feb 2006 Plumes max. 1.5 E and S
22 Feb-24 Feb 2006 Eruptions max. ~ 3 S, E, NE
02 Mar-08 Mar 2006 Explosions max. ~ 1.8 E, SE, S, NW
16 Apr 2006 Ash plume ~ 1.5 --
07 Jun 2006 Ash plume 2.4 --
30 Jun 2006 Plume 1.2 NE
16 Jul 2006 Ash plume 1.8 N
26 Jul-30 Jul 2006 Explosions max. ~ 1.8 N, straight up
11 Aug-14 Aug 2006 Explosions max. ~ 1.8 N and W
26 Aug 2006 Plumes 1.8 Straight up
28 Aug 2006 Plumes 1.5 E
19 Sep 2006 Ash plumes 3.4 E
20 Sep 2006 Ash and steam 2.1 N
06 Oct 2006 Explosion -- --
14, 16-17 Oct 2006 Ash plumes 3 --
18 Oct 2006 Explosion -- --
27 Oct-28 Oct 2006 Ash plumes 1.8 E
04 Nov-06 Nov 2006 Plumes 1.2 E and SW
09 Nov 2006 Plume 1.5 W
17 Nov 2006 Plume 2.1 Straight up
19 Dec 2006 Eruption -- --
09 Jan 2007 Plume -- --
28 Jan 2007 Plume -- --
05 Feb-07 Feb 2007 Plume -- --
19 Feb-20 Feb 2007 Plumes -- --
02 Mar 2007 Plume 1.2 W
17 Mar 2007 Explosion -- --
30 Mar 2007 Explosion -- --
02 Apr 2007 Explosion -- --
08 May 2007 Explosions -- --
26 Jul 2007 Ash plume 1.5 SW
17 Sep 2007 Explosions -- --
16 Oct 2007 Plume 1.5 E
22 Oct 2007 Plume 1.5 W
26 Oct-28 Oct 2007 Plumes 1.5 E and W
29 Nov-02 Dec 2007 Plumes 1.2-1.8 E
10 Dec 2007 Plumes 1.5-1.8 W
14 Dec-17 Dec 2007 Plumes 1.5-1.8 E

During the reporting interval, the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center reported small explosions or eruptions, usually accompanied by ash plumes, every month during this period, except for November and December 2005, May 2006, and June 2007. Ash was seldom identified on satellite imagery. On 20 September 2006, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite detected ash-and-steam emissions (figure 11).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Ash plume blowing N from Suwanose-jima on 20 September 2006, seen in a MODIS image. In color images the plume's hue clearly distinguishes it from the banks of transversely oriented white weather clouds. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the MODIS Rapid Response team.

Information Contacts: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (Tokyo VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan (URL: https://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) program (URL: http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


February 2008 (BGVN 33:02) Citation IconCite this Report


Small (~1 km) plumes noted during late 2007-early 2008

Our last Bulletin (BGVN 3211) covered eruptive activity during July 2005 to December 2007. This issue covers eruptions recorded by the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) from December 2007 to March 2008. Kinoshita and others (2003) noted that Sakura-jima "has been the most eruptive in Japan, with the eruption columns a few kilometers above the crater occasionally."

Table 5 summarizes information gathered by the Tokyo VAAC from observers between 9 December 2007 and 21 March 2008. In all cases the VAAC could not detect plumes using satellite data. An overview of satellite and image monitoring of Suwanose-jima appears in an article by Kinoshita and others (2003).

Table 5. A summary of Tokyo VAAC reports on ash plumes from Suwanose-jima during 9 December 2007 to 21 March 2008. Cases with only dashes in the data fields were when observers detected an explosion but they were unable to say more about a resulting plume. In many of the examples given, there were multiple Volcanic Ash Advisories issued, but no new data came to light. Courtesy of the Tokyo VAAC.

Date Time (UTC) Plume Altitude (km) Drift Direction
09 Dec 2007 2340 1.5 W
10 Dec 2007 0734 1.8 W
14 Dec 2007 0914 -- --
15 Dec 2007 0016 1.8 E
16 Dec 2007 0353 1.5 E
16 Dec 2007 2310 1.5 E
08 Feb 2008 0248 1.8 E
13 Feb 2008 0208 -- --
21 Mar 2008 1622 -- --

Reference. Kinoshita, K., Kanagaki, C., Minaka, A., Tsuchida, S., Matsui, T., Tupper, A., Yakiwara, H., and Iino, N., 2003, Ground and Satellite Monitoring of Volcanic Aerosols in Visible and Infrared Bands: The CEReS International Symposium on Remote Sensing - Monitoring of Environmental Change in Asia, Chiba, Japan, 16-17 December 2003, 10 p.

Information Contacts: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: https://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/).


September 2008 (BGVN 33:09) Citation IconCite this Report


Eruption continues from 2007 into 2008

Historically, Suwanose-jima (figure 12) has been one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes. Our last report on Suwanose-jima, (BGVN 33:02) listed ash plumes between 9 December 2007 and 21 March 2008. This report continues the list through 26 October 2008.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Simplified map of the geology of Suwanose-jima. The active crater, O-take (Oc), appears at the southern end of the small, sparsely populated island. Courtesy of Taketo Shimano.

According to a 2008 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) report, the Tokyo VAAC issued 70 volcanic ash advisories for Suwanose-jima during the 17-month period of January 2007-May 2008. This included seven from January through May 2008 (ICAO, 2008). Table 6 summarizes reports of explosive events and plumes for January-October 2008.

Table 6. A summary of Tokyo VAAC reports on explosive events and resulting ash plumes from Suwanose-jima from April through October 2008 (continued from table in BGVN 33:02). For some events, observers detected an explosion but were unable to observe a resulting plume. Courtesy of Tokyo VAAC, based on information from the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) or pilot reports.

Date Plume Altitude (km) Drift Direction
16 Apr 2008 -- --
16 Jun 2008 -- --
29 Jul 2008 0.6 S
07 Aug 2008 1.2 --
24-26 Aug 2008 1.8-2.4 --
04-06 Sep 2008 1.5-1.8 E (5 Sep)
24-29 Sep 2008 1.5-3 NE, E, and SW
01-02 Oct 2008 -- --
07-10 Oct 2008 2.1 --
16, 18-20 Oct 2008 1.2-2.5 W
21, 23, 25-26 Oct 2008 1.5-3.0 W and E

MODIS/MODVOLC thermal alerts were measured by satellite-borne radiospectroradiometer during 2008 through 6 November (table 7). The island is often covered by clouds, preventing consistent detections.

Table 7. Thermal anomalies measured by MODIS satellite analyzed by the MODVOLC algorithm for Suwanose-jima volcano in 2008 through 6 November. Courtesy of Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System.

Date Time (UTC) Pixels Satellite
30 Jul 2008 1710 1 Aqua
31 Jul 2008 1335 1 Terra
22 Sep 2008 1350 1 Terra

NASA satellite observation of 19 October 2008. According to the NASA MODIS Rapid Response team and the NASA Earth Observatory, the volcano released a continuous plume of ash and steam in late October 2008. They noted that a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) captured an image of an ash plume on 19 October 2008. In this image, the plume formed a rippling pattern as it blew WSW. The plume differed from the nearby clouds in both its slightly darker color and more diffuse shape. Near the summit, the plume appeared beige.

References. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 2008, Fourth Meeting of the International Airways Volcano Watch Operations Group (IAVWOPSG), Paris, France, 15-19 September 2008: Working Paper 34, VAAC Tokyo Management Report, 6 p. (URL: http://www.icao.int/anb/iavwopsg/meetings/iavwopsg4/wp).

Information Contacts: Taketo Shimano, College of Environment and Disaster Research, Fuji-Tokoha University, 325 Obuchi, Fuji-shi, Sizuoka 417-0801, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/shimano/); International Airway Volcanic Watch Operations Group of the International Civil Aviation Organization (URL: http://www.icao.int/anb/iavwopsg); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); NASA MODIS Rapid Response team, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center NASA; NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


July 2009 (BGVN 34:07) Citation IconCite this Report


Explosive eruptions continue through 6 July 2009

This small uninhabited island, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, lies ~ 175 km SSW of Kyushu Island. Previous reports on Suwanose-jima (BGVN 30:07, 32:11, 33:02, and 33:09) listed ash plumes between 28 April 2004 and 26 October 2008. This report continues the compilation through 6 July 2009 (table 8). Ash plumes were consistent and minor, below ~ 2.5 km altitude.

Table 8. A summary of Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports on explosive events and ash plumes from Suwanose-jima, 29 October 2008 to 6 July 2009. For some events, observers detected an explosion but were unable to observe a plume (indicated by --). Courtesy of Tokyo VAAC, based on information from the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA), pilot reports, and satellite imagery.

Date (UTC) Plume Altitude (km) Drift Direction
29-30 Oct 2008 1.5-1.8 E
31 Oct-01 Nov 2008 -- --
03 Nov 2008 1.5-1.8 E
05 Nov 2008 1.5 NE
07 Nov-08 Nov 2008 1.2-1.8 E
12 Nov-16 Nov 2008 -- --
13 Nov-15 Nov 2008 1.5-2.1 --
21 Nov 2008 1.5 E
25 Nov 2008 -- --
10 Dec-12 Dec 2008 0.9-1.8 E
14 Dec-17 Dec 2008 0.9-1.8 E
19 Dec-20 Dec 2008 1.5 E (17, 19 Dec)
26 Dec-28 Dec 2008 1.5-1.8 --
30 Dec 2008 -- --
03 Jan 2009 1.2 E
09 Jan 2009 -- --
21 Jan 2009 -- --
18 Feb 2009 0.4 --
19 Feb-21 Feb 2009 -- --
26 Feb-02 Mar 2009 1.2-1.5 E (1 Mar)
03 Mar 2009 -- --
06 Mar 2009 -- --
15 Mar-16 Mar 2009 1.5 E (15 Mar)
28, 30 Mar 2009 -- --
06, 8, 10 Apr 2009 -- --
21 Apr 2009 -- --
22 Apr-23 Apr 2009 1.2-1.5 E, S
27 Apr 2009 -- --
28 Apr-01 May 2009 1.5-1.8 E, W
07-09, 12-13 May 2009 -- --
17 May 2009 2.1 --
25 May 2009 1.5 --
16 Jun 2009 -- --
06 Jul 2009 -- --

Yukio Hayakawa passed along quantitative data on the explosive eruption on 18 February 2009. The maximum amplitude of ground velocity computed from the analog data was expressed in units of 10-5 m/s (in Japan this unit is expressed as mkine). The values on the 18th were 5.38 x 10-5 m/s; and the airwave was 11 Pa. Hayakawa also indicated that the two explosive eruptions on 20 February had maximum amplitudes of 4.31 x 10-5 m/s and 5.76 x 10-5 m/s, respectively. The airwaves recorded were 20 and 18 Pa, respectively at microphones.

A visible-wavelength image from MODIS captured a small Suwanose-jima plume on 5 July 2009 (figure 13). As of mid-2009, no thermal alerts had been recorded by MODVOLC since 22 September 2008. The island is often covered by clouds, thwarting detection.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Image of Suwanose-jima taken on 5 July 2009 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite. A beige-colored plume fans out and remains conspicuous for ~ 18 km to the NE blowing toward the island of Yaku-shima. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory and the US Air Force Weather Agency.

Information Contacts: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/); U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)/XOGM, Offutt Air Force Base, NE 68113, USA; Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Yukio Hayakawa, Gunma University, Faculty of Education, Aramaki 4-2, Maebashi 371-8510, Japan.


July 2011 (BGVN 36:07) Citation IconCite this Report


Many small explosions up to 2 km altitude during mid-2009 to mid-2011

In a previous report (BGVN 34:07) we discussed ash plume data from the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) and reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) that covered explosive activity based on infrasound measurements and seismicity during October 2008 to July 2009. Many explosions were heard and felt but cloud cover obscured direct observations. From 6 July 2009 to 14 July 2011 the Tokyo VAAC reported 234 explosions; 62 of which produced a measurable ash plume (table 9) from the summit crater, On-take (also called Otake).

Table 9. A summary of Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports on measured ash plumes from Suwanose-jima, 15 July 2009 to 14 July 2011. Courtesy of Tokyo VAAC, based on information from the JMA, pilot reports, and satellite imagery.

Date (UTC) Plume Altitude (km) Drift Direction
15-17 Jul 2009 1.5-2.1 NE, W
16-17 Aug 2009 1.8 E
28-29 Aug 2009 1.5-2.4 W
17-18 Sep 2009 1.5 S
01 Oct 2009 1.5 W
10 Oct 2009 1.5 --
04-05 Nov 2009 1.2-1.8 SW, W, NE
26 Nov 2009 3.0 E
14 Dec 2009 1.2-1.5 E
22 Dec 2009 1.5 --
02 Jan 2010 1.8 --
04-05 Jan 2010 1.5-1.8 NE, E
09 Jan 2010 1.8 E
26-27 Jan 2010 1.2-1.5 SE, W
29 Jan 2010 1.8 --
17 Feb 2010 1.2-1.5 E, SE
19 Feb 2010 1.5 SE
21 Feb 2010 1.8 --
15-16 May 2010 1.5-1.8 NW
23 Jul 2010 2.4 NW
26 Jul 2010 1.5 W
22 Sep 2010 1.5-2.1 SE
25 Sep 2010 1.5 E
05 Oct 2010 1.5 E
17 Oct 2010 1.5 SE
10-12 Nov 2010 1.5-2.1 SE, N, SW
18 Nov 2010 1.8 --
21 Nov 2010 2.1 NE
29 Nov 2010 1.2-1.5 --
04 Dec 2010 1.2 SE
13 Jan 2011 1.2 SE
22 Jan 2011 1.5 S
05 Feb 2011 0.6 SW
12 Apr 2011 1.8 --
14 Jul 2011 3.7 --

JMA stated that this volcano has erupted every year since 1956. The activity alert status for Suwanose-jima was Level 2 (on a 1 to 5 scale where 5 is the highest) from December 2007 to July 2011; this status indicates that the crater is too dangerous to visit.

Activity during late 2009. The Tokyo VAAC reported frequent plumes from mid-August through December 2009. The tallest plumes, above 1.5 km altitude, occurred on 16-17 and 29 August, and 5 and 26 November (table 9). According to JMA, a visitor during 29-30 December 2009 saw Strombolian eruptions.

Activity during 2010. Ash plumes up to ~ 2.4 km altitude were reported by the Tokyo VAAC on many days throughout the year (table 9).

Based on the seismic record, JMA was able to infer when explosions occurred within the crater. The number of these explosions decreased from 64 in January to 0 in June; from July to September there were less than 20 monthly explosions, but activity appeared to peak in November when 94 explosions were recorded.

Aerial observations were made in collaboration with the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF) on 14 December (figure 14). The flight confirmed high temperature areas at both the summit crater's center and at the lower, outer rim. Thes results were congruent with those obtained earlier, in December 2009, and JMA concluded that similar conditions prevailed in the crater during this interval.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Thermal imaging of Suwanose-jima's summit crater, On-take, taken on 14 December 2010. On the false-color scale (calibrated at right), the highest temperatures are white, the lowest temperatures are blue, showing values in Celsius. The maximum temperature from photo B is 442.5°C; maximum temperature from photo D is 106.1°C. Courtesy of JMA; photos by the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF), Kanoya Air Base.

Activity during 2011. Ash plumes were reported by the Tokyo VAAC for January, February, April, and July; the tallest occurred on July 14 and reached ~ 3.6 km altitude (table 9). From January to July 2011, volcanic earthquakes and tremor remained relatively high (figure 15).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Geophysical data recorded for Suwanose-jima from 2003 to July 2011. The uppermost plot indicates eruptions (red arrows, at top) and the daily maximum plume height in meters (histogram). High-frequency (A-type) earthquakes are separated from low-frequency (B-type) earthquakes. JMA also reported monthly tremor durations (not shown here). Courtesy of JMA.

A 2.9-magnitude earthquake centered below Suwanose-jima occurred on 3 February 2011 at 2206. That month, local inhabitants reportedly felt 17 earthquakes. No surface change was observed before or after the earthquakes. Surveillance in February 2011 included visual observations by the Coast Guard.

Immediately after the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (M 9.0, located offshore of Honshu, Japan) instruments at Suwanose-jima recorded increases in high-frequency (A-type) earthquakes. A-type earthquakes are generally considered to have shallow focal depths; B-type earthquakes, deeper focal depths.

Ash explosions seemingly rarely occurred through March 2011, but reports from [the village 4 km SSW of the crater] stated that observers there had seen ballistics thrown from the summit crater. Due to prolonged poor weather, surveillance cameras did not record this activity. JMA reported that plume heights for April, May, and June 2011 remained at background levels, with maximum heights of 0.4?1.0 km. Intermittent incandescence was recorded with surveillance cameras when clear weather allowed observations at night from March through June.

Information Contacts: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/); Yukio Hayakawa, Gunma University, Faculty of Education, Aramaki 4-2, Maebashi 371-8510, Japan.


August 2012 (BGVN 37:08) Citation IconCite this Report


2011-2012 eruptions with plumes rising up to 1 km above crater rim

Our last report covered beharior at Suwanose-jima through July 2011 (BGVN 36:07). This report, compiling translated material from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), covers ongoing activity through June 2012, with minor magnitude venting at Otake crater and the tallest plume rising to 1 km over the crater rim. Throughout the reporting period, the volcano’s crater produced weak glow at night that was imaged by a high-sensitivity camera. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale from 1-5, access to the crater area prohibited due to threat of eruption). As summarized in the text, numbers of A- and B-type events were in the ranges of 11-24 and 62-205, respectively. There were multiple cases of ashfall at [the village 4 km SSW] from the summit crater.

The table below summarizes some other information reported by JMA, including a tally of small eruption heights. Tremor duration extended to over 50 hours during several months and to 132 hours in June 2012.

Monthly coverage. Volcanic earthquakes and tremor continued during July and August 2011 (table 10). In August, seismic activity decreased; A- and B-type events occurred 24 and 62 times, respectively. A-type earthquakes are generally considered to have shallow focal depths; B-type earthquakes, deeper focal depths.

Table 10. A compilation of data on Suwanose-jima during July 2011 through June 2012. "--" indicates data not reported. Data courtesy of JMA.

Month Explosive Eruptions Tremor Duration (hh:mm) Max. plume height above rim (m) Other Activity
Jul 2011 0 -- 400 Prolonged activity
Aug 2011 0 15:23 300 Prolonged activity
Sep 2011 2 64:00 300-1,300 Small eruptions on 8,9,11, and 12 Sep
Oct 2011 0 18:51 1,000 Small eruption on 1 Oct
Nov 2011 0 28:30 600 Small eruption on 15 Nov
Dec 2011 0 -- 400 --
Jan 2012 1 69:24 300 --
Feb 2012 1 00:58 400 --
Mar 2012 1 00:17 ~200 --
Apr 2012 0 09:26 300 --
May 2012 0 40:11 600 Very small eruptions on 25,26, and 28-30 May
Jun 2012 0 132:24 300 Very small eruptions

Explosive eruptions from Otake crater occurred on 9 and 12 September 2011. A temporal increase in seismicity, including intermittent tremor, was observed during 9-14 September, later dropping to background level. Ash fell [in the village] on 7, 9, 12, 15, and 18 September.

Small-scale eruptions were observed in October and November 2011. Ashfall was reported [in the village] on 15 November.

Aerial observations were conducted in cooperation with the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF) on 19 December 2011. They revealed a high temperature area at the center of Otake crater.

GPS measurements showed no remarkable crustal change between January and June 2012. GPS data from Tongama ceased starting in mid-May due to a technical failure.

No explosive eruptions occurred in April 2012. Instruments detected 21 A-type events and 85 B-type events.

During May, there were 11 A-type events and 205 B-type events. Noteable volcanic tremor occurred on 5 and 25-26 May. [Residents in the village] registered ashfall on 25 and 28-30 May.

[Village residents] again reported ashfall on 11 and 13-14 June 2012. During June instruments detected 21 A-type events and 116 B-type events. Volcanic tremor was registered during 2?22 June 2012 (table 10).

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/).


April 2013 (BGVN 38:04) Citation IconCite this Report


Near continuous tremor between July 2012 and March 2013

This report discusses Suwanose-jima (figure 16) during July 2012 through April 2013, an interval with generally abundant tremor, low numbers of earthquakes, weak plumes (less than 0.7 km above the crater rim), and occasional intermittent eruptions. Our previous report on Suwanose-jima discussed seismicity through June 2012 that included volcanic earthquakes and tremor, minor explosions, and plumes which occasionally deposited ash [in the residential area ~4 km SSW of the active crater, administratively part of the multi-island Toshima Village,] as late as June 2012 (BGVN 37:08).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Satellite image showing the location of Suwanose-jima. Courtesy of Google Earth.

Recent monthly reports of volcanic activity from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) translated into English resumed in October 2010. Since June 2012, English-translated JMA reports on Suwanose-jima were available online every month through March 2013

According to JMA, seismic activity at Suwanose-jima remained at low levels between July 2012 and March 2013. Although explosive eruptions have occurred repeatedly in the past, no such eruption occurred during the reporting period. However, JMA reported infrequent tiny eruptions. Volcanic tremor occurred almost continually between 28 September 2012 and March 2013. A high-sensitivity camera often detected a weak night glow during every month. No unusual ground deformation was seen in GPS observation data. Table 11 summarizes tremor activity and other information reported by JMA.

Table 11. A compilation of data on Suwanose-jima between July 2012 and March 2013. '--' indicates data not reported. A-type earthquakes are generally considered to have shallow focal depths; B-type earthquakes, deeper focal depths. An asterisk "*" in the earthquake column indicates that the number of events reported for a specific month conflicts with the number reported for that same month in the sequential monthly JMA report. Data courtesy of JMA.

Month Earthquakes Tremor duration (hours:minutes) Max plume height (m above crater rim) Comments
Jul 2012 29 A-type events, 123 B-type events 38:5 400 Eruption.
Aug 2012 17 A-type events, 39 B-type events (or 60 events)* 0:0 (or 0:1)* 300 No eruption. Plume on 19 Aug only.
Sep 2012 37 A-type events, 86 B-type events (or 74 events)* 0:1 (or 67:52)* 300-400 No eruption. White plumes. 11 Sep aerial observation spotted white plume above Shindake crater.
Oct 2012 22 A-type events, 78 B-type events. 705:19 700 Tiny intermittent eruptions at Otake crater. According to Tokyo VAAC, an ash plume on 3 Oct drifted SW at altitude of 3 km (i.e. 1.5 km higher than the JMA reported). Ashfall [in the village], 4 km SSW of Otake, on 2 and 5 Oct.
Nov 2012 -- 720:0 500-600 Tiny intermittent eruptions. Tiny amount of ashfall [in the village] on 25 Nov.
Dec 2012 -- 622:23 500 Tiny intermittent eruptions on 26th, red hot mass seen.
Jan 2013 -- 744:0 500 White plumes.
Feb 2013 -- 672:0 500 M 3.6 earthquake on 19 Feb with aftershocks. Tiny intermittent eruption on 3 Feb. Tiny amount of ashfall [in the village] on 3 Feb.
Mar 2013 -- -- 500 Tremor data unavailable.
Apr 2013 -- -- 700 Small eruption on 13 April. Tremor data unavailable.

 

On 8 November 2012, a field survey at Bunka crater revealed no remarkable change in the crater's shape. Infrared images showed no significant change in the crater's temperature distribution. On 26 December 2012, an aerial observation revealed a red-hot lava mass inside Otake crater. This phenomenon has occasionally been observed in past observations.

On 19 February 2013, a M 3.6 earthquake occurred (apparently at Suwanose-jima). The earthquake's maximum seismic intensity on JMA's scale was 3 (felt indoors by most or all people, objects rattle and fall off tables, houses shake strongly and may receive slight damage). In addition, a swarm of ten earthquakes (aftershocks?) with seismic intensities of 1 or greater on JMA's scale were recorded. These earthquakes caused no significant changes in surface phenomena or tiltmeter data. Seismicity remained at low levels, with hypocenters located just beneath the Otake crater.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/).


November 2014 (BGVN 39:11) Citation IconCite this Report


Periods with several eruptions per day during April 2013-December 2014

This report covers activity at Suwanose-jima from 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2014. The previous Bulletin report (BGVN 38:04) detailed near-continuous tremor, a few earthquakes, and occasional ash plumes and eruptions during July 2012 through April 2013. This reporting period includes continuous tremor, intervals with several explosions per day, and plumes rising up to 5.5 km altitude. The data was gathered primarily from two key sources: the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), who publishes monthly reports on Japanese volcanic activity (URL in Information contacts section).

The map in figure 17 highlights the location of the Otake crater (elevation of 796 m, also called Ontake crater), which was the source of the plumes, explosions, and other activity at Suwanose-jima during this reporting interval. The map was published by the JMA and also depicts the locations of monitoring sites for the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. A map indicating monitoring sites and topography, with a contour interval of 20 m. The Otake crater is located in the center of the island. Seismometers (circles), infrasonic microphones (circles with crosses), tiltmeters (triangles), GPS (stars), and visual cameras (binoculars) were situated on the nearby slopes by several agencies. The Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) utilizes the light blue units, the JMA the red units, and the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) the orange unit. Source: Iguchi and Ito (date unknown) with slight changes by Bulletin editors.

Activity during 2013. According to the JMA (monthly reports), the Alert Level at Suwanose-jima constantly remained at 2 (on an increasing scale of 1-5). At night, high-sensitivity cameras regularly observed weak crater glow. A series of almost-continuous tremors began on 28 September 2012 and persisted through 2013.

During the month of April, the JMA noted that the tremor lasted for a total of 677 hours and 50 minutes. On 13 April 2013, the Otake crater had a minor eruption with plumes rising to 0.7 km above the crater.

The Otake crater did not erupt during May and June 2013. In May, white plumes generally rose to 0.2-0.3 km above the crater; the tallest plume reached 0.5 km. There was “no remarkable change in plume activity” in June, according to the JMA. During the month of May, a nearly continuous tremor lasted for a total duration of 704 hours and 54 minutes. It stopped on 1 June 2013 and then resumed on 12 June.

On 9 July 2013, a pilot reported an ash plume to 1.5 km altitude. However, the Tokyo VAAC was unable to detect ash in satellite images. Continuous tremor occurred from mid-June to 15 July and from 24 to 30 July. On 29 July, an earthquake occurred near Suwanose-jima, with a magnitude of 3.2 and a seismic intensity of 2 (an increasing scale of 0-7).

The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) conducted a field trip to the volcano during 15 and 18 July 2013 (figure 18). They found the volcano quiet, releasing only short, white plumes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18.Photos taken from 16-18 July during a field trip associated with the IAVCEI 2013 Scientific Assembly. Additional photos can be found on Volcano Discovery.

(Top) Otake crater, facing NE. A thin, white plume rises from the crater and is shown in greater detail in the zoomed photo on the upper right.

(Bottom, left) Crater from which the 1813 subplinian Bunka eruption originated. (Bottom, middle) Flank of old cinder cone within the rift zone. The ground in this area was covered by spatter agglutinate from the 1813 eruption. (Bottom, right) Scoria and ash deposits in the NE cliff of the island. Source: Pfeiffer (2013), labeled by Bulletin editors.

On 25 August 2013 at 1904 LT, the Otake crater erupted, and intermittent explosive eruptions continued from 26 August onwards. On 27 August, plumes rose to ~1.2 km altitude and drifted NE/SE. On 28 August, ash plumes beginning at 0910 LT rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km, drifting NE and 3-3.7 km altitude, drifting E/NW. There was a total of 16 explosive eruptions during August. The above crater height of the resultant grayish white plumes generally ranged from 0.5-0.8 km, with the tallest plumes reaching ~1.5 km above the crater. Tremor occurred near continuously during 2-4, 11-14, and 25-31 August. Satellites utilized by the VAAC detected ash on 29 August, and from 30 August to 1 September, they detected explosions as well.

During September 2013, the Otake crater erupted explosively six times. Explosions occurred from 5-6 September with ash plumes rising to 1.8-2.1 km altitude, beginning at 0655 LT on the 5th and drifting NNW. On 12 September, ash plumes rose to 1.8 km altitude, drifting NW. During 29-30 September, ash plumes rose to 1.5 km altitude, drifting W and volcanic blocks were scattered around the crater on the 29th. Plumes in September generally rose above the crater to less than 1 km and the maximum height was 1.4 km. Earthquakes were felt near to Suwanose-jima on 10, 21, and 26 September 2013. The seismic intensity was 1 and tremor occurred intermittently.

During October, minor explosions occurred at the Otake crater during 13-15 and 21-22 October. Gray plumes from those eruptions generally rose above the crater to less than 0.6 km, with a maximum height of 1 km above the crater. Earthquakes were felt near the volcano on 9 October 2013. The seismic intensity was 2 and tremor occurred intermittently. On 21 October, an ash plume rose to 1.5 km altitude, heading S.

On 27 November 2013, the Otake crater erupted explosively 7 times, causing a scattering of volcanic projectiles around the crater. The eruption formed a plume that rose 1.8 km altitude, drifting E. In addition, Otake erupted occasionally throughout the month, with gray plumes above the crater generally rising to less than 0.6 km and a maximum plume height of 1 km. Tremor occurred intermittently.

Between 26 and 31 December 2013, Otake erupted 247 times, according to the JMA December 2013 report. From 27-28 December, plumes from Suwanose-jima rose to ~1.5 km altitude, drifting SE. On 28 December, small amounts of ashfall were observed [in the village ~4 km SSW] of Otake. According to the village administration, air shocks rattled windows and sliding doors from 28-29 December and crater glow was observable at night. On 29 December 2013, 125 explosions occurred, along with tremor and airshocks from about 0000 to 0300 LT. This indicated “consecutive eruptions,” according to the JMA, with gray plumes rising to 0.6 km above the crater. The eruption ejected volcanic projectiles around the crater.

Activity during 2014. Information for activity during May, July, and October 2014 was unavailable, with an absence of VAAC reports for these intervals. During January, the Otake crater exploded 23 times, with volcanic projectiles scattering around the crater. The Tokyo VAAC noted explosions during 1-3 and 6 January. Between 1 and 2 January, explosions formed plumes to 0.9-1.8 km altitude, drifting SE. The explosions were heard in [the] village until the 3rd. During 8 to 9 January, explosions generated plumes, which rose to 1.2 km altitude and drifted NE/SE. The VAAC noted an explosion on 24 January, generating a plume that rose to 1.8 km altitude. Minor ashfall was observed on 1, 6, and 23 January.

During February 2014, the Otake crater exploded 7 times (on 2, 12, 19, and 23-24 February), with plumes reaching a maximum height of 1.2 km above the crater. On 2 February, the explosion at 1638 LT formed an ash plume to 1.8-3 km altitude that blew SE/SSE. On 12 February, the generated plume rose to 1.2 km altitude and drifted SE, and on 14 February, a plume rose to an altitude of 1.8 km altitude. During 23 to 24 February, plumes rose to 1.8 km altitude and drifted E. Volcanic seismicity for February was high and tremor occurred occasionally.

On 1 March 2014, the Otake crater erupted explosively. All other eruptions during March were minor and sporadic in occurrence. Plumes rose to a maximum height of 0.8 km above the crater. The volcanic seismicity was high and tremor occurred occasionally.

On 29 April, the Otake crater erupted explosively twice and the resulting plumes rose to 1.2 km altitude, heading E. All other eruptions during April were once again minor and sporadic in occurrence. Plumes reached a maximum height of 0.8 km above the crater.

During June 2014, the Otake crater erupted several times, with explosions on 18 June at 2246 LT, on 19 June at 1734 LT with a plume heading E, and on 20 June at 0933 LT. VAAC satellite imagery did not indicate any ash within the plumes.

Between 28 August and 1 September, eruptions resulted in ash plumes rising to 1.8-2.7 km altitude and drifting S, SE, E, and NE. Several eruptions occurred during the first week of September, with ash plumes rising to 1.8-5.5 km altitude on 3 September beginning at 1109 LT, 5.5 km altitude on 4 September at 1833 LT, and 2.1 km altitude on 9 September at 2233 LT.

On 14 November 2014, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion, with a plume rising to 1.8 km altitude and drifting SE.

Explosions at Suwanose-jima on 7 December 2014 formed plumes rising to 1.5-1.8 km altitude, drifting E/SE. On 14 December, plumes rose to 1.8 km altitude. and drifted SE.

SO2 emissions. Morita and others (2013) conducted an analysis of SO2 emissions at Suwanose-jima between 20 January and 7 May 2013. Using a UV spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000+, they obtained 3 to 15 minute long scans from between 0800 and 1700 LT. The average daily SO2 emission rate was ~700 tons/day (t/d), and ranged between 300 and 1300 t/d. These emission numbers are comparable to those at Suwanose-jima between 1975 and 2006, when the SO2 fluctuated between 300 and 1,130 t/d (Mori and others, 2013). The researchers also found positive correlations between seismic amplitude and released puffs with associated increases in SO2 emissions.

References. Iguchi, M., Ito, K., date unknown, 97. Suwanosejima, Japan Meteorological Agency (URL: http://www.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vois/data/tokyo/STOCK/souran_eng/volcanoes/097_suwanosejima.pdf) [accessed in April 2015]

Mori, T., Shinohara, H., Kazahaya, K., Hirabayashi, J., Matsushima, T., Mori, T., Ohwada, M., Masanobu, O., Iino, H., Miyashita, M., 2013, Time-averaged SO2 fluxes of subduction-zone volcanoes: Example of a 32-year exhaustive survey for Japanese volcanoes, 16 August 2013, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgrd.50591/full)

Morita, M., Mori, T., Iguchi, M., Nishimura, T., 2013, Continuous monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission rate at Suwanosejima volcano, Japan, Fall 2013, American Geophysical Union (URL: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V43B2875M)

Pfeiffer, T., 2013, Excursion to Suwanose-jima volcano (Tokara Islands, Japan) - photos from the IAVCEI 2013 field trip A3, July 2013, Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/suwanosejima/photos/july2013/fieldtrip.html) [accessed in April 2015]

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html; Monthly report URL: http://www.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vois/data/tokyo/eng/volcano_activity/monthly.htm); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/)


January 2017 (BGVN 42:01) Citation IconCite this Report


Occasional ash plumes during January-September 2015

Continuous tremor, intervals with several explosions per day, and plumes rising to 5.5 km altitude were observed at Suwanosejima between 1 April 2013 and 14 December 2014 (BGVN 39:11). The data for this report, covering 5 January-11 September 2015, was gathered primarily from two key sources: the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Throughout the entire reporting period, no MODVOLC thermal anomalies were recorded, although the hazard status remained at Alert Level 2 (Do not approach the crater), on an increasing scale of 1-5. The Otake (also O-take) crater (figure 1) was the site of much of the activity during 2015.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Simplified map of the geology of Suwanosejima. The active crater, O-take (Oc), appears in the center of the small, sparsely populated island. Courtesy of Taketo Shimano.

In its Monthly Volcanic Activity Report for January 2015, JMA noted four explosive eruptions at the Otake crater, in addition to other occasional non-explosive eruptions. Grayish plumes accompanying the eruption rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. On 25 January a field survey revealed a pit in the southeastern portion of the Otake crater which had formed since the previous survey on 8 November 2012.

Plumes in 2015 were reported by the VAAC in the months of January, February, April, July, August, and September. JMA served as the primary source for all of these VAAC notices; any additional sources are noted. The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 5 January ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km and drifted NE and SE, and were also observed by pilots. The VAAC also reported an explosion on 25 January, the same day as the field survey.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 14-15 February ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km and drifted E. JMA's monthly report for February 2015 indicated that twelve explosions occurred at Otake crater, in addition to occasional, non-explosive events. Grayish plumes accompanying the explosions rose as high as 1,500 m above the crater rim. According to the Suwanosejima branch of the Toshima Village administration, ash fall was observed at Kiriishi port (located ~3.5 km S. of Otake) on 26 February.

A very small eruption at the Otake crater on 5 March 2015 was noted by JMA. An event on 13 April reported by the Tokyo VAAC generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km and drifted N. Explosions during 24-25 April generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km and drifted N and SE.

JMA reported a continued high activity level at the Otake crater with very small eruptions recorded on 5 and 17 May 2015. No explosions were observed at the Otake crater in June. The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from small eruptions at Otake on 30-31 July rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km and drifted E, SW, and W, as reported by pilots and seen in satellite data. Grayish plumes accompanying the eruption rose as high as 1,300 m above the crater rim. According to the Suwanosejima branch of the Toshima Village administration, ashfall was observed in a village ~4 km SSW of Otake on 31 July.

JMA's August 2015 report described small, occasional, non-explosive events at the Otake crater, with accompanying grayish plumes rising as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim. Volcanic "glow" was observed at the Otake crater occasionally at night with a high-sensitivity camera. According to the Toshima Village administration, ashfall 4 km SSW of Otake was again present on 1, 2, and 9 August. The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 4 km on 2 August, and to 1.8 km on 21 August that drifted SE.

In the September 2015 report, JMA noted that volcanic activity had remained at high levels, with 89 explosions recorded at the Otake crater; 69 of those were on 24 September, the first time more than 50 explosions a day had been observed since 30 December 2013. Plumes accompanying the events rose as high as 1,500 m above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was observed at night with a thermal camera. According to the Toshima Village administration, ashfall was once again observed in a village 4 km SSW on 7 September. The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km and drifted SE. JMA noted that parts of local structures shook in association with explosions that occurred on 24 September. Explosions and rumbling were heard on the island.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/).


November 2017 (BGVN 42:11) Citation IconCite this Report


Persistent ash plumes, explosions, and Strombolian activity during September 2015-December 2016

Suwanosejima, an andesitic stratovolcano in Japan's northern Ryukyu Islands, was intermittently active for much of the 20th century, producing ash plumes, Strombolian eruptions, and ash deposits. Continuous activity since October 2004 has consisted generally of multiple ash plumes most months rising a few hundred meters above the summit to altitudes between 1 and 2 km, and tens of reported explosions. Activity between January and September 2015 included small eruptions in July and August that produced ash plumes rising to 3-4 km altitude. Increased activity beginning in August 2015 included incandescence at the crater and increased explosive activity with incandescence in September; 89 explosions occurred that month, and ash fell in the village 4 km SSW (BGVN 42:01). Eruptive activity for the period of September 2015-December 2016 included intermittent explosions, ash plumes up to 4.3 km altitude, ashfall within a 5-km radius, and Strombolian activity. Information is provided primarily by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), and the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Activity during September-December 2015. Numerous explosions were reported by the JMA during 24-30 September. The Tokyo VAAC reported a plume at 2.1 km altitude extending SE on 24 September; subsequent reports noted there were no observations of ash emissions or plumes in satellite data during that time, and no further VAAC reports were issued after 30 September (until January 2016).

JMA reported that explosions at the Ontake crater on 2, 13, and 31 October 2015 produced gray-and-white emissions and rose a maximum of 800 m above the summit (at ~800 m elevation). Explosions occurred on 1 and 20 November as well; the plume rose 1 km above the crater rim on 1 November. Ashfall was confirmed in the small village 4 km SSW after both events. There were no explosions reported during December 2015; only steam emissions rose 600 m above the summit crater, and rumbling was heard on 12 December from the nearby settlement. Incandescence was visible with a thermal camera at night during September-December 2015.

Activity during 2016. According to JMA, explosions and intermittent emissions occurred during most months of 2016 (table 12). Ashfall in the village 4 km SSW of the summit was reported during January-April, July-August, and October-November. Steam-and-ash plume heights ranged from 800 to 2,700 m above the crater rim. The number of monthly seismic events was low in January (25), increasing to a maximum of 1,195 in April. It dropped below 200 by July, and below 100 during November and December. Incandescence at night was reported often every month. An overflight on 31 May 2016 revealed a steam plume rising 400 m above Ontake crater (figure 20). Strombolian activity on 15 September and 23 November 2016 ejected incandescent blocks onto the crater rim (figure 21). An ash emission on 25 November sent gray and white ash and steam 1,800 m above the crater rim (figure 22). Incandescent blocks from an explosion were also observed on 17 December.

Table 12. Activity at Suwanosejima during 2016 reported by JMA. Times are local.

Month No. of explosions Emission events Max plume height (m above crater) Dates of ashfall in village 4 km SSW No. of seismic events Other activity detail
Jan 2016 1 Yes, small -- 22, 23 25 Occasional incandescence at night; explosion at 2114 on 6 Jan.
Feb 2016 0 Occasional small 800 m 22 64 Occasional incandescence at night.
Mar 2016 13   1,700 m 7, 20, 21 170 Incandescence at night; shockwaves felt 20-21 Mar.
Apr 2016 14 -- 1,700 m 11, 15, 18, 19 1,195 Incandescence at night; occasional rumbling; seismicity increased 24-26 Apr.
May 2016 5 Steam plumes 1,200 m None 396 Incandescence at night; overflight (figure 20); steam plume 400 m above crater on 31 May drifted NE.
Jun 2016 0 Occasional 1,900m None 606 Incandescence at night.
Jul 2016 0 Occasional 1,900 m 23 142 Incandescence at night.
Aug 2016 26 -- 2,700 m on 12 and 28 1, 2 171 Incandescence at night; tephra around crater on 12 and 28 Aug; infrasound on 13, 14 Aug; rumbling on 25 Aug.
Sep 2016 1 3 Ash to 1,900 m on 17, steam to 2,400 m on 5 None 106 Incandescence almost every day; Strombolian activity and explosion at 2305 on 15 Sep (figure 21).
Oct 2016 0 Occasional 1,200 m 6, 30 102 Incandescence almost every day.
Nov 2016 11 Occasional ash emissions 1,800 m 5, 6, 26, 29 56 Constant incandescence; Strombolian explosion at 2325 on 23 Nov sent blocks around crater (figure 22).
Dec 2016 7 Occasional ash emissions 2,500 m at 1356 on 13 None 33 Incandescence at night; large explosion at 2020 on 13 Dec; incandescent blocks on 17 Dec.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Aerial photos of Ontake crater at Suwanosejima on 31 May 2016. Upper image is the close-up view outlined in red below. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary on Suwanosejima, May 2016).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Strombolian activity and explosion at Suwanosejima on 15 September 2016 sent a large incandescent block outside the crater rim (center left). Courtesy of JMA "Paris tree" webcam (Volcanic activity commentary on Suwanosejima, September 2016).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Explosive activity at Suwanosejima during November 2016 produced Strombolian activity and ash emissions. A Strombolian explosion on 23 November (top photo) sent incandescent blocks around the crater rim (left center, viewed by the JMA "Nogi" webcam). An ash emission on 25 November (bottom photo) sent ash and steam 1,800 m above the crater rim (viewed by the JMA "Campsite" webcam). Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary on Suwanosejima, November 2016).

The Tokyo VAAC also reported information about ash plumes and explosions during 2016 (table 13). Explosions were reported during every month of 2016 except February, and ranged from two in January to 19 in August. Most plume heights were lower than 2.7 km altitude. Exceptions included: an explosion on 1 August produced an ash plume that rose to 3.4 km altitude and drifted S; a plume rose to 3 km on 29 November and also drifted S; and the largest of the year, an ash plume that rose to 4.3 km altitude and drifted E, on 13 December (figure 23).

MODVOLC thermal alerts were reported on 20 April, 4 May (3), and 17 May 2016.

Table 13. Summary of activity reported at Suwanosejima during 2016 by the Tokyo VAAC. Time in UTC.

Month Explosion Count Explosion Days Plume Heights Drift Directions
Jan 2016 2 4, 6 1.5 km SE
Feb 2016 0 -- -- --
Mar 2016 14 2 (2), 4, 6, 7 (2), 10, 21, 22 (2), 23, 26 (2), 30 1.2-2.4 km SE, W, N
Apr 2016 13 5, 10, 14 (2), 15, 17 (2), 18, 19 (3), 20, 21 1-2.4 km E, W, SE, S, N
May 2016 5 3 (2), 4 (2), 18 1.5-2.1 km E, SE, W
Jun 2016 4 13 (3), 14 1.8-2.7 km E
Jul 2016 4 18 (2), 22, 31 1.5-2.7 km NE, E, N, NW, W
Aug 2016 19 1 (3), 10 (3), 11, 12, 14 (2), 17, 25, 26 (2), 27 (2), 28 (2), 31 1.0-3.4 km SW, SE, W, NW
Sep 2016 2 15, 16 2.7 km W
Oct 2016 5 6 (2), 25 (2), 26 1.5-1.8 km E, S, NE
Nov 2016 18 5, 6, 8, 10 (2), 11 (3), 12 (2), 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 25 (2), 29 1.2-2.1, 3.0 km on 29 E, SW, SE, S, W
Dec 2016 4 13 (2), 16, 17 4.3 on 13, 1.8 km NE, SE, SW, W
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. The largest ash explosion of 2016 at Suwanosejima (viewed from the JMA "Parquet" webcam) occurred on 13 December 2016 and sent a plume to 4.3 km altitude (3,500 m above the crater rim). Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary on Suwanosejima, December 2016).

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History


There is data available for 27 Holocene eruptive periods.


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2004 Oct 23 2017 Nov 10 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
2000 Dec 19 2004 Jul 5 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations O-take (Upper NE flank)
2000 Feb 24 ± 4 days 2000 Feb 24 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
1999 Jun 15 ± 5 days 1999 Jun 30 ± 4 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations O-take
1999 Jan 5 ± 5 days 1999 Feb 24 ± 4 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations O-take
1996 Dec 26 1997 Apr 17 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations O-take
1990 Apr 16 ± 15 days 1996 Jul 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
1988 Jan 16 ± 15 days 1989 Dec 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
1985 Sep 16 ± 15 days 1987 Jun 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
1984 Oct 16 ± 15 days 1984 Oct 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
1960 Jul 2 (?) ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Submarine E flank (Suwanose-jima Oki)
1956 Nov 16 ± 15 days 1984 May 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
1954 Jul 2 (?) ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Submarine E flank (Suwanose-jima Oki)
1949 Oct 1954 Jul 2 ± 182 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
1940 Nov 29 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
1938 Mar 11 1938 Mar 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
[ 1934 Jan 11 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   O-take
1925 May 13 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
1921 Dec 8 1922 Jan 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
[ 1915 Jul ] [ 1915 Sep ] Uncertain 2   O-take
[ 1914 Mar 21 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     O-take
1889 Oct 2 1889 Oct 13 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations O-take
1885 Jan 1885 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations O-take
1884 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Northeastern summit crater (O-take)
1877 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1813 1814 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations SW ridge fissure and O-take
1600 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology

Deformation History


There is data available for 1 deformation periods. Expand each entry for additional details.


Deformation during 2003 Nov 02 - 2003 Nov 02 [Variable (uplift / subsidence); Observed by Seismometer]

Start Date: 2003 Nov 02 Stop Date: 2003 Nov 02 Direction: Variable (uplift / subsidence) Method: Seismometer
Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: Unknown Latitude: Unknown Longitude: Unknown

Remarks: Vertical displacement seismograms show uplift 100 seconds before an explosive eruption, followed by subsidence during the eruption.


Reference List: Iguchi et al. 2008.

Full References:

Iguchi, M., H. Yakiwara, T. Tameguri, M. Hendrasto, and J.-I. Hirabayashi, 2008. Mechanism of explosive eruption revealed by geophysical observations at the Sakurajima, Suwanosejima and Semeru volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 178, 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2007.10.010

Emission History


There is no Emissions History data available for Suwanosejima.

Photo Gallery


A steam plume rises above On-take, the summit crater of Suwanose-jima volcano. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-jima consists of a stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The dipping escarpment at the top of the photo is the NW wall of a large breached crater that extends to the sea on the east flank. The horseshoe-shaped crater was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, has been in a state of intermittent strombolian activity since 1949.

Photo by Yukio Hayakawa, 1998 (Gunma University).
See title for photo information.
An ash plume rising above the summit crater of Suwanose-jima is photographed from a helicopter on May 12, 2001. Vigorous eruptions on the evening of May 12 and the morning of the 13th deposited up to 3 cm of ash in Toshima village, about 4 km NNW of the crater. After a quiet period of about 10 months, eruptive activity had resumed on December 19, 2000 and continued intermittently until July 2004.

Photo courtesy of Japan Meteorological Agency, 2001.
See title for photo information.
This photo of the NE slope of Suwanose-jima taken on December 20, 2000, the day after the onset of an explosive eruption, shows the main active crater, On-take (labeled 1), and two subsidiary craters (also labeled). Explosive activity continued intermittently until July 2004.

Photo by Kazuhiro Ishihara, 2000 (Sakura-jima Volcano Research Center).
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


There are no samples for Suwanosejima in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites