Ubinas

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  • 16.355°S
  • 70.903°W

  • 5672 m
    18604 ft

  • 354020
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Most Recent Weekly Report: 10 September-16 September 2014


During 10-16 September IGP reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing and maintained Alert Level Orange. On 10 September there were 15 explosions with plumes 900-1,700 m above the crater and 10 exhalation events; on 11 September there was one explosion with a plume 3,000 m above the crater and 8 exhalation events (600-900 m above the crater). There were no explosions or exhalations during 12-16 September, although seismicity (LP, VT, and hybrid earthquakes) continued except on 13 September when hybrid earthquakes were absent.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: August 2013 (BGVN 38:08)


Explosions during 1-7 September 2013 produce ash plumes

During 2008 through August 2009 Ubinas emitted persistent fumarolic plumes and had intermittent ash explosions (BGVN 35:04). This activity led to frequent aviation warnings. The current report discusses a phreatic eruption during 1-7 September 2013 that included nine explosions. The location of Ubinas, the most active volcano in Peru, is shown in figure 18.

Figure 18. Map of Peru showing the location of Ubinas. Courtesy of USGS.

Between the beginning of September 2009 and the end of August 2013, the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reported two additional ash plumes in aviation warnings on 18 July 2010 and 4 July 2013. According to a pilot report, the 4 July 2013 ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km and drifted W; however, no ash was detected in satellite images amid clear conditions. The IGP did not report any increase in the earthquake number on 4 July, but indicated that the seismic energy liberated increased significantly on that date, from about 24-58 megajoules during 1-3 July to 74 megajoules before decreasing to 37 on 5 July and remained between 5 and 22 megajoules through 15 July 2013.

The Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and the Observatorio Volcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI-INGEMMET) reported that a phreatic eruption at Ubinas beginning 1 September 2013 included nine explosions (figure 19). According to a news account (The Raw Story) seismologist Victor Aguilar of the Geophysical Institute of the University of San Agustin de Arequipa told the Agence France-Presse that the first explosion was strong and was followed by a series of lesser blasts. Most of the explosions generated ash plumes that rose 1.5 2 km above the crater. A brief description of the explosions is presented in table 6. IGP monitors Ubinas continuously with a network of four telemetered stations. Figure 20 shows the fourth explosion, seen on 3 September 2013.

Table 6. Description of the explosions at Ubinas during 1-7 September 2013, and another ash emission on 22 October 2013. MJ is megajoules. ND is not determined as of 27 September. Courtesy of IGP and OVI INGEMMET.

Explosion Date and local time Energy (MJ) Duration (sec) Comments
1 1 Sept, 2246 1765 110 Ballistics up to 2 m in diameter ejected, minor ashfall 2 km ENE.
2 2 Sept, 1552 666 292 Fewer ballistics than first explosion.  Large gas and ash plume to 2 km above crater.
3 2 Sept, 2350 122 279 Ash plume
4 3 Sept, 0809 139 296 Gas and ash plume up to 2 km above crater; minor ashfall >40 km NW affected small towns.
5 3 Sept, 1021 58 288 Gas and ash plume to 1.6 km above crater
6 3 Sept, 1029 313 74 Gas and ash plume to 1.6 km above crater
7 4 Sept, 1807 505      350
8 5 Sept, 1620 191 321
9 7 Sept, 1036 ND      ND
10 22 Oct ND ND Non-explosive gas-and-ash emissions
Figure 19. Photo showing the gas and ash plume from Explosion 2 of the phreatic eruption at Ubinas, which was taken on 2 September 2013. Courtesy of IGP and OVI-INGEMMET.
Figure 20. Photo of Explosion 4 of the phreatic eruption at Ubinas, taken on 3 September 2013. Courtesy of IGP and OVI INGEMMET.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were measured with a mini-DOAS spectrometer, shortly after Explosion 4; the average SO2 concentration was 155 metric tons/day.

According to a news account (Phys.org), on 12 September 2013, Peru declared a state of emergency in nine districts threatened by the toxic gases and ash spewing from Ubinas. Authorities were distributing masks and have given themselves a 60 day period to relocate villagers from areas where ash is damaging crops and polluting water sources.

Information Contacts: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.meteofa.mil.ar/vaac/vaac.htm); Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) (URL: http://www.igp.gob.pe); Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Av. Canadá 1470, San Borja, Lima 41, Perú (URL: http://www.ingemmet.gob.pe/);

USAID USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) (URL: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vdap/); phys.org (URL: phys.org); and The Raw Story (URL: www.rawstory.com).

Index of Weekly Reports


2014: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September
2013: July | August | September | October
2010: July
2009: January | February | March | May | June | July | August
2008: February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2007: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2006: March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December

Weekly Reports


10 September-16 September 2014

During 10-16 September IGP reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing and maintained Alert Level Orange. On 10 September there were 15 explosions with plumes 900-1,700 m above the crater and 10 exhalation events; on 11 September there was one explosion with a plume 3,000 m above the crater and 8 exhalation events (600-900 m above the crater). There were no explosions or exhalations during 12-16 September, although seismicity (LP, VT, and hybrid earthquakes) continued except on 13 September when hybrid earthquakes were absent.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)


3 September-9 September 2014

During 3-9 September IGP reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing. During 3-4 and 9 September, steam plumes from fumaroles occasionally rose from the summit. Seismicity was generally low but dominated by tremor. Two exhalations of ash were observed on 5 September, the first at 0858 generated an ash plume up to 1,000 m above the summit which dispersed S. The second plume occurred at 1327 and dispersed ash 500 m above the summit that dispersed N.

A total of five explosions were detected on 8 September, the strongest occurred at 0850 and produced a 1,200 m plume; the second explosion expelled ash to heights between 1,300 and 1,900 m; ashfall was noted in areas S.

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported Aviation Color Code Orange on 8 and 9 September when visible images revealed a narrow plume of steam and ash drifting SE. By 0400 on 9 September, the emissions contained water vapor, gas, and light ash, and reached an altitude of 7,300 m (24,000 ft) a.s.l..

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2014

During 27 August-2 September INGEMMET reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing. During 27-31 August gas and ash plumes rose 200-1100 m above the crater and drifted E, NE, SE, and S. On 27 August INGEMMET reported increased volcanic tremor which continued until 30 August when the volcanic tremor decreased. On 28 August the Buenos Aires VAAC listed the Aviation Color Code at Red, noting intermittent light ash and possible ongoing emissions.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 August-26 August 2014

During 20-26 August INGEMMET reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing. During 20-25 August water vapor, gas, and minor ash plumes rose 200-1800 m above the crater and drifted E, NE, and S. On 21 August an explosion was followed by an ash plume that rose 4.2 km (13,800 ft) above the summit and drifted S and expelled incandescent blocks up to 2 km from the crater, primarily on the S flank. The explosion was heard up to 10 km from the volcano. On 22 August an ash plume rose to 1.8 km (5,900 ft) and drifted E and NE. On 21-22 August ashfall was reported in the towns of Querapi, Ubinas, Escacha, Tonohaya, and Yalahua.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 August-19 August 2014

During 13-17 August INGEMMET reported that seismicity has decreased and the eruption of Ubinas continued. Mild steam-and-gas emissions rose 200-400 m above the summit and drifted SE and NE.

Source: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


6 August-12 August 2014

During 6-9 August INGEMMET reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing. On 6-7 August gas-and-minor ash emissions rose 300-1200 m above the crater and drifted NE and S. On 6 August ash was reported in the village of Para (NE). On 8-9 August, white emissions of primarily water vapor rose 100-300 m above the crater and drifted S and SE. On 6 August Buenos Aires VAAC reported intermittent light volcanic ash and emission puffs to 6.7 km (22,000 ft)a.s.l. and continuous emissions of gases and light ash on 7 August.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 July-5 August 2014

On 31 July and 3-5 August the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emission of light ash from Ubinas. On 30 July INGEMMET reportedsteam-and-gas plumes that rose 500-1100 m above the summit. On 31 July INGEMMET reported an eruption column rose to 3 km (9,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 1 and 3 August gas-and-ash emission rose 200-1200 m above the crater and drifted W.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


23 July-29 July 2014

On 23 July the Buenos Aires VAAC reported a weak emission of light ash. During 23-25 July INGEMMET and IGP reported that seismicity at Ubinas has decreased. On 23-24 July mild gas-and-ash emissions rose 200-550 m above the summit and drifted E and NE. On 25 July there were no explosions, but minor gas and ash emissions drifted E.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 July-22 July 2014

During 16-22 July INGEMMET and IGP reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing with gas-and-ash emissions reported most days. An explosion on 17 July, preceded by several days of banded tremor, generated an eruption column that rose 5 km above the summit and expelled incandescent blocks onto the flanks. More explosions on 19 and 21 produced eruption columns of gas-and-ash; the column on 19 July rose 2.8 km above the summit. Emissions and exhalations on 16, 18, and 22 July of gas-and-ash rose to 200-1800 m above the summit. Eruption columns and emissions drifted mostly E, NE, and SE. There were no significant emissions on 20 July. Ashfall was reported in various towns downwind of the plumes, in the areas of Querapi (4 km S), Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Tonohaya (7 km SSE), San Miguel (10 km SE), Escacha, Yalahua, Lloque, and Sacuhaya.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 July-15 July 2014

IGP reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing during 12 June-10 July. During 12-30 June six explosions generated plumes 1,400-3,600 m above the crater. Volcanic tremor was associated with ash emissions during 12-21, 25, and 26 June. During 28-29 June more than 1,000 hybrid earthquakes were recorded, but volcano-tectonic earthquakes were scarce. A moderate explosion on 30 June generated an incandescent plume. After more than 50 hours of tremor, a moderate explosion occurred at 0858 on 30 June; the plume reached 1,800 m above the crater and ejected tephra 1,500 m down the NW flank.

During 30 June-10 July IGP detected five, small-sized explosions that generated plumes 400-1,500 m above the crater. Seismicity was also reduced during this period; the greatest number of hybrid earthquakes was registered on 6 July when a swarm of 115 earthquakes occurred.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)


25 June-1 July 2014

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 25-28 June there was continuous steam and possible ash emission from Ubinas. In a press release from 30 June, IGP noted minimal releases of ash and gas emissions had been observed during the previous days. Gas-and-ash plumes observed on 30 June rose 1.8 km above the crater. Minor ashfall was reported SE.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 June-24 June 2014

INGEMMET reported intermittent explosions from Ubinas along with continuing daily tremor and long-period earthquales during 18-23 June. Two explosions were noted on 18 June, as were six gas-and-ash emissions that generated diffuse plumes 400-700 m above the summit. Ashfall was reported in Querapi (located 4 km S). On 19 June the seismic network detected two explosions, and gas-and-ash emissions were observed nine times, reaching 300-1,200 m above the crater. Ashfall was reported in the areas of Querapi, Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Escacha, Tonohaya (7 km SSE), and San Miguel (10 km SE).

No explosions were recorded on 20 June, but seven gas-and-ash emissions were observed (200-500 m above the crater) with the webcamera. On 21 June, six explosions were recorded, with gas-and-ash plumes seen nine times to heights of 500-1,200 m above the crater. Light ashfall was reported in the towns of Ubinas, Lloque, and Yunga. Seismicity on 22 June included one explosion signature. The webcamera captured views of eight gas-and-ash plumes that reached 300-1,000 m above the crater. No explosions were registered on 23 June, although six gas-and-ash plumes were observed with plume heights as high as 1,300 m above the crater.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


11 June-17 June 2014

In a 12 June press release, IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) reported that activity at Ubinas had decreased since April, however periods of intense tremor mainly associated with ash emissions continued to be detected. Ashfall affected areas around the volcano, especially within 6 km E and SSW. An IGP update on 17 June noted a small explosion at 1335 that day that sent ash 1,800 m above the crater, to an altitude of about 7,400 m (24,500 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


4 June-10 June 2014

In a press release from 5 June, IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an Alert Level Orange continued for residents affected by the Ubinas eruption. Residents of Querapi and Tonohaya remained evacuated. The report noted that a significant and continuous release of ash emissions and gasses were observed during the previous days. Gas-and-ash plumes observed during 5-7 June rose 0.2-2 km above the crater. Minor ashfall was reported in Lloque and Yungas during 6-7 June.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


28 May-3 June 2014

Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 28-29 May ash emissions at Ubinas continued; gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.6-2.5 km above the crater and drifted ESE. Ashfall was reported in various towns downwind of the plumes, including Querapi (4 km S), Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Escacha, Chojata, San Miguel, and Tonohaya. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that seismicity fluctuated during 2-3 June. Satellite and webcam images as well as pilot observations indicated continuous emission of gas and ash that rose to altitudes of 6.7-10.7 km (22,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 May-27 May 2014

Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 21-23 and 25-27 May ash emissions at Ubinas continued. On most days gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.7-3.8 km above the crater and drifted W, N, E, and SE. Ashfall was reported in various towns downwind of the plumes including Querapi (4 km S), Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Escacha, Lloque, Chojata, San Miguel, and Tonohaya.

Source: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


14 May-20 May 2014

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 14-16 May emissions at Ubinas continued. On 14 May emissions with minor amounts of ash rose 0.6-1.8 km above the crater. An explosion at 1902 on 14 May ejected fragments around the crater and caused thick ashfall in Chojata and Escacha. Water vapor and ash plumes rose 0.7-3.5 km on 15 May, and gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 500-800 m on 16 May. A moderate explosion at 1915 on 18 May was followed by nine hours of continuous emissions. Later that day gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.4-1.1 km. During 14-16 and 18 May ash fell in various towns downwind of the plumes, including Querapi (4 km S), Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Escacha, Lloque, Chojata, and Tonohaya.

A news article from 15 May noted that the mayor of the district of San Juan de Tarucani in Arequipa continued the effort to relocate families.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


7 May-13 May 2014

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 7-12 May gas-and-ash plumes, sometimes with only minor amounts of ash, rose 0.6-3 km above the crater. Ash fell in various towns downwind of the plumes including Querapi (4 km S), Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Escacha, Anascapa, San Miguel, and Tonohaya. Significant ashfall was reported in Santa Rosa de Phara on 8 May.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


30 April-6 May 2014

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 30 April-1 May seismic activity at Ubinas increased significantly, and then declined through 6 May. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 0.2-3 km above the crater and drifted in multiple directions, especially to the S, SE, E, and NE. Ash fell in various towns downwind of the plumes including Querapi (4 km S), Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Escacha, Anascapa, San Miguel, and Lloque. On 4 May minor amounts of ash fell throughout the Ubinas valley, more than 15 km away. Although sulfur dioxide emissions had been declining since the peak on 15 April (4,873 tons per day) they continued to be high at more than 1,000 tons per day; villages downwind reported strong sulfur odors.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


23 April-29 April 2014

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 23-28 April daily explosions at Ubinas generated ash plumes that rose 0.2-2.5 km above the crater and drifted in multiple directions, especially to the S, SE, and E. Ash fell in various towns downwind of the plumes including Querapi (4 km S), Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Escacha, Yungas, and Chojata. Seismicity was at a low level; signals indicating magma ascent were absent.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


16 April-22 April 2014

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that 21 moderate explosions at Ubinas were detected during 11-16 April along with a sharp increase in seismicity; the magnitude and frequency of explosions increased during 14-16 April. Multiple explosions during 16-22 April ejected incandescent tephra, and generated plumes of gas, water vapor, and ash that rose at most 5 km above the crater. Ash fell in multiple areas in almost all directions, but was most concentrated to the S, SW, and W; towns affected included Querapi (4 km S), Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Sacuaya, Huatagua (14 km SE), Escacha, Quinistaquillas, San Miguel (10 km SE), Tonohaya, and Matalaque. On 18 April at 1836 a significant gas-and-ash emission was accompanied by the ejection of incandescent blocks that landed up to 2 km from the crater. Explosions on 19 and 22 April ejected incandescent tephra, 20-30 cm in diameter, up to 2.5 km away from the crater. Fine ash fell in Omate, 37 km SSW. According to a news article, an evacuation of 4,000 residents was underway, along with nearly 30,000 livestock.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Disaster News Network


9 April-15 April 2014

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 9-14 April seismicity at Ubinas remained high. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.3-2.2 km above the crater and drifted mostly E, SE, and S. Ashfall was reported in Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Huatagua (14 km SE), Anascapa (11 km SE), Tonohaya (7 km SSE), San Miguel (10 km SE), Sacuaya, Querapi (4 km S), San Juan de Tarucani, Escacha, Ichuña, Yungas, and Chojata. On 13 April a significant explosion occurred that possibly removed the body of recently erupted lava on the crater floor; incandescent tephra was ejected from the crater. On 14 April an explosion ejected incandescent tephra from the crater that was deposited on the W flank.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


2 April-8 April 2014

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) reported that during 29 March-2 April seismicity at Ubinas increased significantly. The increase began at 1000 on 29 March with energetic tremor (indicating magma ascent and degassing) and small explosions. On 2 April harmonic tremor was detected. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.9-2.2 km above the crater and drifted SE and E. Minor ashfall was reported in Tonohaya (7 km SSE), San Miguel, and Ubinas (6.5 km SSE). Based on webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 3 April gas-and-steam plumes possibly containing ash rose 6.1-7.3 km (20,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated around the crater. IGP-OVA noted that on 4 April there were 23 explosions detected; ash plumes drifted S and SE. During 5-7 April explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km and drifted S and SW. During 7-8 April explosions also ejected incandescent fragments, up to 20 cm in diameter, no more than 1 km away. Ash plumes rose as high as 3 km.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 March-1 April 2014

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) reported that volcanologists visiting Ubinas on 19 March observed that lava had continued erupt, covering the 120-m-wide crater floor. Seismic signals detected during 20-21 and 23 March indicating increased lava emissions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater almost daily during 10-25 March; ashfall was reported on 25 March in nearby villages and noises from the volcano were audible in areas as far as 6 km SE.

INGEMMET reported that on 26 March gas-and-ash emissions rose 1.2-1.7 km and drifted NE, E, and SW. Small amounts of fine ash fell within 4 km of the crater. Ash emissions on 27 March caused ashfall in Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Querapi (4 km S), and Tonohaya (7 km SSE). Rockslides traveled down the SE flank. On 28 March residents of Ubinas reported noises from the volcano. Seismicity increased the next day and was characterized by long-period earthquakes and harmonic tremor. On 30 March gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 1.2 km. A news article stated that residents of Querapi had started to evacuate. A low-energy explosion occurred at 0743 on 31 March and produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km. More low-energy explosions followed: at 1119, 1306, 1518, and 1616. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1-1.8 km. Ashfall was reported in Ubinas and Querapi.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); La República; Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)


19 March-25 March 2014

In a 23 March news article IGP volcanologists noted that the seismic network at Ubinas indicated a large output of lava during 10-11 March; sulfur dioxide emissions also increased during this period. Lava in the crater was incandescent. Based on analysis of satellite images and the INGEMMET web cam, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an emission of gas and steam on 23 March possibly contained diffuse ash. The plume drifted NE before dissipating about 55 km away. The next day another steam-and-gas emission possibly containing some ash drifted NE.

On 25 March Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that in the previous days bluish white gas plumes rose 1.3 km above the crater rim and sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 2,200 tons per day. The report also noted that lava had continued to erupt in recent weeks.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Grupo RPP


12 March-18 March 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Ubinas, possibly containing ash, drifted WNW on 13 March and SW on 15 March. Satellite images on 16 March showed a diffuse gas plume containing some ash drifting WSW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 March-11 March 2014

IGP reported that during 26 February-4 March activity at Ubinas was characterized as low to moderate; seismicity fluctuated but remained low. Volcanologists visited the crater during 1-2 March and observed a new elongated body of incandescent lava that was 30-40 m long and emitted bluish gas. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that although a pilot reported an ash plume drifting NE at an altitude of 8.8 km (29,000 ft) a.s.l. on 7 March, there was no indication of ash in satellite images. On 10 March a narrow and diffuse plume possibly containing ash was detected in satellite images drifting SW. Clear images the next day showed no ash present.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 February-18 February 2014

IGP reported that a phreatic explosion from Ubinas occurred at 1445 on 14 February and generated a water vapor, gas, and ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater. Seismic activity had been increasing before the explosion, since 8 February.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)


5 February-11 February 2014

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) reported that on 1 February at 1559 a gas-and-ash plume from Ubinas rose 0.5-2 km above the crater and drifted E and SE. A photo showed ash from the plume falling onto the flanks. The event was accompanied by increased seismicity for several hours. At 2027 on 7 February a large volcano-tectonic earthquake occurred under the volcano at a depth of 9 km. Bluish gas emissions were sporadic during 8-11 February.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)


29 January-4 February 2014

IGP reported that two earthquake swarms at Ubinas were detected: the first during 8-9 January and the second on 25 January. An emission was observed on 23 January. Seismicity increased again during 30-31 January. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that, although a pilot reported an ash plume on 2 February, there was no ash detected in satellite images. The next day a pilot observed steam emissions with small amounts of ash; satellite images confirmed the presence of ash.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 October-29 October 2013

IGP reported that a 2-minute-long non-explosive seismic signal indicated gas-and-ash emissions at Ubinas on 22 October.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)


4 September-10 September 2013

According to a news source, IGP reported that a seventh phreatic explosion from Ubinas occurred just after 1800 on 4 September; six explosions were recorded between 1 and 3 September. The explosion caused alarmed residents of Querapi, 4 km S, to temporarily leave their homes and congregate in the town square.

Source: La República


28 August-3 September 2013

IGP reported six phreatic explosions from Ubinas during 1-3 September. The series of explosions decreased in both energy and length of the tremor signal associated with each explosion; tremor lasted 75 minutes for the first explosion and 5-10 minutes for the last one. Most of the explosions generated ash plumes that rose 1.5-2 km above the crater.

The first explosion occurred at 2246 on 1 September, lasted 110 seconds, ejected ballistics up to 2 m in diameter, and caused ashfall 2 km ENE. The second explosion, at 1552 on 2 September, lasted 292 seconds and ejected fewer ballistics. Details for the 3rd through the 6th explosions are as follows: the 3rd occurred at 2350 on 2 September and lasted 279 seconds; the 4th occurred at 0809 on 3 September and lasted 296 seconds; the 5th occurred at 1021 on 3 September and lasted 288 seconds; the 6th occurred at 1029 on 3 September and lasted 74 seconds.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)


10 July-16 July 2013

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that, although a pilot reported an ash plume from Ubinas rising to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W on 4 July, there was no ash detected in clear satellite images.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 July-20 July 2010

Based on a pilot observation and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 18 July an ash plume from Ubinas drifted NE. A subsequent report about 12 hours later stated that no further activity was seen.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 August-25 August 2009

Based on a pilot observation, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an emission from Ubinas was seen on 23 August. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 August-18 August 2009

Based on a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an emission from Ubinas was seen on 15 August. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 July-7 July 2009

Based on a pilot observation, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 4 July an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 6.7-9.1 km (22,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 June-16 June 2009

Based on SIGMET notices and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11 and 13-15 June eruptions from Ubinas produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.9 km (18,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted NE, E, and SE. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery on 13 June.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 June-9 June 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 5 June plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 6.1-6.7 km (20,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and S. A pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 6 and 9 June, plumes seen on satellite imagery rose to altitudes of 6.1-7.6 km (20,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and NE, respectively.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 May-2 June 2009

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 29 and 31 May eruptions from Ubinas produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SW. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery on 31 May. INGEMMET reported on 1 June a bluish gas plume with some ash content. On 2 June, an explosion was detected and gas-and-ash plumes that rose 0.9-1.5 km drifted E.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 May-26 May 2009

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 20 May an eruption of Ubinas produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery. According to a news article, two explosions were detected on 25 May. Gas emissions impacted local residents and their fields, prompting residents to request government assistance.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Peru.com


13 May-19 May 2009

Based on pilot observations, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 15-19 May ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, NW, and SSE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 March-24 March 2009

Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 March. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 March-17 March 2009

Based on a SIGMET notice and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11-12 March ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.3 km (18,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. A SIGMET notice described an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 9.1-9.8 km (30,000-32,000 ft) a.s.l. on 15 March; ash was not identified in satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 March-10 March 2009

Based on a SIGMET notice and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 4 March an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 February-24 February 2009

Based on a SIGMET notice and a pilot observation, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 23 February an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 6.2-7.6 km (20,500-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Ash was not seen on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 February-17 February 2009

INGEMMET reported that although cloud cover occasionally prevented visual observations of Ubinas, steam and steam-and-ash plumes were seen during 11-16 February and rose to altitudes of 5.7-6.5 km (18,700-21,300 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NE, N, W, and SW.

Source: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


28 January-3 February 2009

Based on a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 31 January an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ash was not seen on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 January-13 January 2009

Based on a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 11 January an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 December-6 January 2009

Based on a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 5 January an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 November-2 December 2008

Based on a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 30 November an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 October-4 November 2008

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 31 October ash plumes were continuously emitted from Ubinas and rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted E.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 October-28 October 2008

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 22 October ash plumes were continuously emitted from Ubinas and rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted S.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 October-21 October 2008

Based on SIGMET notices and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 15, 18, 20, and 21 October ash plumes were continuously emitted from Ubinas and rose to altitudes of 4.9-7 km (16,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted SE and NW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 October-14 October 2008

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11-13 October ash plumes were continuously emitted from Ubinas and rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted SE and W.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2008

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 1 and 3 October ash plumes were continuously emitted from Ubinas and rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted N and NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 September-30 September 2008

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 30 September ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.8 km (18,000-29,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 September-23 September 2008

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 17 September ash plumes from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 10.1 km (33,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The next day, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 September-16 September 2008

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 10 and 13-15 September ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-10.1 km (18,000-33,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, E, and NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 September-9 September 2008

Based on SIGMET reports and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 5-6 September ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2008

Based on SIGMET reports, analysis of satellite imagery, and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 26-27 August and on 2 September continuous ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted N on 27 August and S on 2 September.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 August-19 August 2008

Based on SIGMET reports and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 18 August ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 July-29 July 2008

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-5.8 km (18,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 July and drifted SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 July-15 July 2008

Ash advisories issued by the Buenos Aires VAAC, based on SIGMET notices, indicated ash plumes on 9, 10, and 15 July rising to 5.5-5.8 km (18-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and moving E.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 July-8 July 2008

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-5.8 km (18,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. on 7 July and drifted NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 June-1 July 2008

According to a news articles on 30 June, the Alert level for Ubinas continued at Yellow because small explosions and ash-and-gas emissions continued during the previous two months. Inhabitants of local communities and their livestock have suffered the effects of gas and ash emissions. Local authorities have begun discussion of the potential relocation of about 650 affected families.

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-120,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 June. The plume drifted NE and was not observed on satellite imagery.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); La República; Perú 21


18 June-24 June 2008

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-5.8 km (18,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 June and altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. on 22 June. The plumes drifted S, SE, and NE and were not observed on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 June-17 June 2008

Based on a SIGMET report, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 13 June an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 June-10 June 2008

Based on a SIGMET report and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 7 June an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 May-3 June 2008

Based on pilot reports, SIGMET reports, and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 28-29 May ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW on 3 June.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 May-27 May 2008

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 22-24 May ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 4.9-7.9 km (16,000 and 26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, E, NE, and SE. On 26 May, a pilot reported that a plume rose to an altitude of km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. The plume was also identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 May-20 May 2008

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 5.5 and 8.5 km (18,000 and 28,000 ft) a.s.l. on 15 and 19 May, respectively. The plumes drifted E and SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 May-13 May 2008

Based on SIGMET reports and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 9 and 12 May. Plumes drifted E and SE, respectively.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 April-6 May 2008

Based on SIGMET reports and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-9.1 km (18,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE during 30 April-3 May. According to news articles, an ash-and-gas plume rose to an altitude of 6.2 km (20,300 ft) a.s.l. on 2 May. Ashfall was reported in local communities and dozens of residents of Querapi, about 4.5 km SE, were evacuated.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Associated Press; NBC News


23 April-29 April 2008

Based on SIGMET reports and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-9.1 km (18,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and S on 23 April.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 April-22 April 2008

Based on pilot reports, SIGMET reports, and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE and NE during 19-22 April.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 April-15 April 2008

Based on SIGMET advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE on 15 April.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 April-8 April 2008

Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 6 April.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 March-1 April 2008

Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 3.7-6.7 km (12,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 March and 1 April. The plumes drifted SW and NW, respectively.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 March-18 March 2008

Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N on 17 March.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 March-11 March 2008

Based on pilot reports and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW on 9 March.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 February-4 March 2008

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 2 March.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 February-26 February 2008

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.5 km (18,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 23 February.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 December-25 December 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SW during 24-25 December.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 December-18 December 2007

Based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas drifted NW during 11-12 December.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 December-11 December 2007

Based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.5 km (18,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE during 4-7 and 10 December.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 November-4 December 2007

Based on a pilot report and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 6.7-7.6 km (22,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and NE during 28-29 November.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 November-13 November 2007

Based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. during 11-12 November. Plumes drifted NNE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 October-6 November 2007

Based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. during 1 and 3-6 November. Plumes drifted NE and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 October-30 October 2007

Based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, pilot reports, and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.5 km (18,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NE during 23-27 October.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 October-23 October 2007

Based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, pilot reports, and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.3 km (18,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NE during 19-20 and 22-23 October.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 October-16 October 2007

Based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NNE, SE, and ESE during 11-13 and 15 October

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 October-9 October 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 12 and 20 September. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 September-25 September 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 12 and 20 September. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 September-18 September 2007

Based on observations of satellite imagery and a pilot report, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 12 and 14 September.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 September-11 September 2007

Based on observations of satellite imagery and a pilot report, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 11 September.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 August-14 August 2007

Based on satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 9 August.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 July-31 July 2007

Based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 and 25 July. The plumes drifted SE and S, respectively. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery. On 24 July, a diffuse plume was visible on satellite imagery at an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 July-24 July 2007

Based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 22 July. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 July-10 July 2007

Based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude between 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 4 July. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 June-3 July 2007

Based on pilot observations and Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that Ubinas produced ash plumes during 27-28 June to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SW, NE, and E. A diffuse ash plume was visible on satellite imagery on 2 July.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 June-19 June 2007

Based on observations from satellite imagery and Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 13-17 June continuous emissions from Ubinas produced ash plumes to altitudes of 5.8-6.7 km (19,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted NNE, E, SE, SW, and W.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 June-12 June 2007

Based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 12 June an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 May-5 June 2007

Based on observations from satellite imagery and Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 30 May-3 June and on 6 June ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 3.7-7.6 km (12,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted NE, ESE, and SSE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2007

Based on pilot reports, observations from satellite imagery, and Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 22-28 May ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.3 km (18,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted NE, E, and ESE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 May-22 May 2007

INGEMMET reported that during 16-17 May, ash and gas plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.8-7.7 km (19,000-25,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, SE, and E. Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that continuous emissions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.6-9.1 km (18,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. during 17 and 19-22 May. Plumes drifted ESE, SE, and E.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)


9 May-15 May 2007

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 12 and 15 May ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.2 km (18,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and N, respectively.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2007

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-9.1 km (18,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. during 2-5 May. Plumes drifted NE, S, SE, and SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 April-1 May 2007

Based on satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26, 29, and 30 April, and 1 May. Plumes drifted E and SS

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 April-24 April 2007

INGEMMET reported that on 18 April, explosions from Ubinas produced gas and ash plumes to altitudes of 5.9-7.7 km (19,400-25,300 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SW. Based on significant meteorological (SIGMET) notices, satellite imagery, and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. on 17, 18, 22, and 24 April. Plumes drifted NW, SW, and SE.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 April-17 April 2007

Based on a significant meteorological notice (SIGMET), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (26,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. on 10 April and drifted W. INGEMMET reported that on 11 April, emissions of gas and ash produced plumes to altitudes of 6.2-6.4 km (20,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on an additional SIGMET, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to altitudes of 6.1-6.4 km (20,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 April-10 April 2007

Based on pilot reports and a significant meteorological notice (SIGMET), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 5 and 7-9 April. Plumes drifted E, SE, S, and SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 March-3 April 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash cloud from Ubinas rose to 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. on 30 March and drifted E. According to a news article, local residents observed rockfalls and reported ashfall. A scientist from the Geological, Mining, and Metallurgic Institute (INGEMMET) reported that the eruption was the largest in a two-week period characterized by an increased rate of explosions. A diffuse ash plume was visible on satellite imagery on 3 April drifting NE.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Living in Peru


14 March-20 March 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash cloud from Ubinas rose to 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. on 14 March and drifted SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 March-13 March 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 11 March. Ash plumes rose to 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 February-27 February 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 21 February. Ash plumes rose to 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 February-20 February 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas during 18-20 February. Ash plumes rose to 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 January-6 February 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 2 and 5 February. Ash plumes rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and S, respectively.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 January-30 January 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 28 January. Ash plumes rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 January-23 January 2007

Based on satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 18 January. The resultant plumes drifted SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 December-2 January 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 27 and 30 December. Ash plumes rose to 4.9-8.5 km (16,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 November-5 December 2006

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 2 December. Ash plumes rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 November-28 November 2006

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 25 November. Ash plumes rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 November-21 November 2006

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas during 15-16 November. The plumes rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 November-14 November 2006

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas during 9-11 and 13 November. Ash plumes rose to 5.5-7.3 km (18,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, NW, and NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 November-7 November 2006

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 3, 5, and 7 November. Ash plumes rose to 6.1-7.9 km (20,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, N, and S, respectively.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 October-31 October 2006

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 25, 27-28, and 30-31 October. The plumes rose to 5.5-8.5 km (18,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, SW, and W.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 October-24 October 2006

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas on 17, 19, 21, and 23-24 October. The plumes rose to 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, SW, E, and N.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 October-17 October 2006

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emission of ash plumes from Ubinas during 12-17 October. The plumes rose to 4.9-6.7 km (16,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, E, and N.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 October-10 October 2006

Based on satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC issued an aviation ash advisory for Ubinas on 5 October. The continuous ash emissions reached altitudes of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 September-3 October 2006

Aviation ash advisories for Ubinas, based on pilot reports, were issued by the Buenos Aires VAAC on 27, 28, and 30 September, and 1 October. The reports indicated continuous ash emissions.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 September-26 September 2006

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC issued aviation ash advisories for Ubinas on 24 and 25 September. The continuous ash emissions were rising as high as 9 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SSE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 September-19 September 2006

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emission of ash plumes from Ubinas on 13 September. The plumes rose to altitudes of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 September-12 September 2006

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emission of ash plumes from Ubinas during 5, 9, and 11 September. The plumes rose to altitudes of ~4.9-5.5 km (~16,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 August-5 September 2006

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions of ash plumes from Ubinas during 30 August-1 September and on 4 September. The plumes reached altitudes of ~4.9-5.5 km (~16,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 August-29 August 2006

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions of ash plumes from Ubinas during 23-29 August. The plumes reached altitudes of 4.9-7.6 km (16,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, SE, and S.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 August-22 August 2006

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions of ash plumes from Ubinas during 17-21 August. The plumes reached altitudes of ~5.5-7.9 km (~18,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, SE, and S.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 August-15 August 2006

According to the Buenos Aires VAAC, during 8-13 August pilots reported that ash plumes emitted from Ubinas reached altitudes of between 4.9 and 5.5 km (16,000 ft-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted generally N, E, and S. Ash was also visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 August-8 August 2006

According to the Buenos Aires VAAC, during 1-8 August pilots reported that ash plumes emitted from Ubinas reached altitudes of between 4.6 km to 6.7 km (15,000 ft-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted generally NE and SW. Ash was visible on satellite imagery on 4 and 6 August.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 July-25 July 2006

According to the Buenos Aires VAAC, a pilot reported that ash plumes from Ubinas during 22-24 July reached altitudes of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 July-18 July 2006

According to the Buenos Aires VAAC, ash clouds from Ubinas were visible on satellite imagery during 14-15 July and reached altitudes of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. On 17 July, a pilot reported ash clouds that also reached altitudes of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 July-11 July 2006

According to the Buenos Aires VAAC, a pilot reported that ash plumes from Ubinas on 8 and 9 July reached altitudes of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery during 8-10 July.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 June-4 July 2006

Based on pilot reports, ash clouds identified from Ubinas on 28 June reached altitudes of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 June-13 June 2006

Based on pilot reports, ash clouds identified from Ubinas during 9-11 June reached altitudes of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW. According to news articles, approximately 550 families were evacuated on 10 and 11 June.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Living in Peru


31 May-6 June 2006

On 3 June, the Alert Level for Ubinas was increased to Orange due to heightened explosive activity. During 31 May to 5 June, ash plumes reached altitudes of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, SE, and S. According to a news report, on 5 June, officials in S Perú prepared to evacuate approximately 480 families.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Dominican Today


24 May-30 May 2006

According to a pilot report, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas on 24 May reached an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 25 May, an ash plume reached an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 30 May, an ash plume visible on satellite imagery reached an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 May-23 May 2006

Based on information from significant meteorological advisories (SIGMET) and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash emitted from Ubinas during 20-23 May rose to a maximum height of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 May-16 May 2006

Based on information from significant meteorological advisories (SIGMET) and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash emitted from Ubinas during 9-11 and 13-14 May rose to a maximum height of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 May-9 May 2006

Based on information from significant meteorological advisories (SIGMET), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash emitted from Ubinas during 4-8 May rose to a maximum height of ~6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 April-2 May 2006

According to INGEMMET, on 22 April at 0715 an explosion began at Ubinas that produced an ash-and-gas plume that reached a height between 1 and 3 km above the volcano (or 21,900 and 28,450 ft a.s.l.). This was the highest rising plume since activity began in late March. Continuous emissions occurred until 1600. Ash and gas emitted during 20-22 April traveled as far as 60 km from the volcano mainly NW, W, and SW, and traces of ash reached the Arequipa airport. During 25 and 26 April, the volume of ash emitted from the volcano decreased significantly. Gas plumes rose between 200 and 700 m above the volcano's caldera (or 19,300 and 20,900 ft a.s.l.). The Alert Level was reduced from Orange to Yellow. Seismicity during 22-26 April was higher than normal. The Buenos Aires VAAC posted volcanic ash advisories during the report period.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 April-25 April 2006

INGEMMET reported that gas and ash was emitted from Ubinas from 27 March to at least 19 April. On 13 April, ash emissions increased noticeably in comparison to the previous days, with ashfall in the villages of Ubinas, Querapi, and Sacuaya, and as far as 7 km from the volcano. Acid rain was also noted in these villages, particularly between 1400 and 1600 on 14 April. Explosions on 13 and 14 April were heard in nearby villages. At this time, the Alert Level at the volcano was Yellow. On the 19th, a lava dome was observed on the crater floor for the first time. It was incandescent, 60 m in diameter, and 4 m high. Explosions were heard as far as 6 km from the volcano and a plume composed of ash and lava fragments rose ~ 3 km above the volcano (or 28,450 ft a.s.l.). Plumes lasted for 6-7 hours and hazard statements suggested significant danger within 4 km of the crater. The Alert Level was raised to Orange. The Buenos Aires VAAC released volcanic ash advisory statements during the report period.

According to news reports, as of 19 April at least 1,000 people living N of the volcano suffered respiratory problems, dozens of livestock died and many more were ill after eating ash-covered grass, and water sources were polluted with ash. Dozens of people from Querapi, the town closest to the volcano, began to evacuate on 21 April. On 22 April, officials declared a state of emergency for the area near the volcano and sent aid for evacuees.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Reuters; Associated Press; Agence France-Presse (AFP)


12 April-18 April 2006

A significant meteorological forecast (SIGMET) was issued on 15 April for an ash cloud from Ubinas at a height of 6.1-7.3 km (20,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l., and later that day for a cloud at 6.1-9.1 km (20,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was Red until 16 April when the Buenos Aires VAAC received a report that activity had ceased. According to a news report on 18 April, however, officials urged residents the town of Querapi ~5 km from the volcano to evacuate.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Reuters


5 April-11 April 2006

Based on information from the Perúvian Volcanologic Observatory, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash emitted from Ubinas reached 6.1-9.1 km (20,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 April around 1220. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code for the volcano was at Red, the highest level. At 1900 on the 6th a plume was observed at 6.1-7.3 km (20,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NE. The Aviation Color Code was subsequently reduced to Orange. On 8 April the VAAC received a report that volcanic activity had ceased, so the Aviation Color Code was reduced to Green, the lowest level. On the 9th, a significant meteorological forecast (SIGMET) was issued for an ash cloud at a height of 6.1-7.3 km (20,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. that was drifting SW. The Aviation Color Code was increased to Red until 11 April. On the 11th volcanic activity reportedly ceased, so the code was again decreased to Green.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 March-4 April 2006

Increased fumarolic activity occurred at Ubinas during the end of March. A Universidad de San Agustin scientist who visited the volcano on 31 March found strong steam-and-ash emissions occurring. Also, leaves of nearby crops were burned and a sound similar to a jet engine emanated from the vent area.

Sources: US Geological Survey Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP); Victor Aguilar, Universidad de San Agustin, Perú


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

06/1969 (CSLP 62-69) Intensified fumarolic activity and minor ash emissions

07/1969 (CSLP 62-69) Continuous ash emissions in early July

12/1985 (SEAN 10:12) Weak fumarolic activity

07/1996 (BGVN 21:07) Increased fumarolic activity prompts seismic and other monitoring

03/2006 (BGVN 31:03) Ash eruption beginning 25 March 2006; heightened seismicity since November 2004

05/2006 (BGVN 31:05) Ash and steam emissions stir hazard and environmental concerns

10/2006 (BGVN 31:10) New reporting reveals ashfalls, large ballistic blocks, lahar hazards, and evacuations

01/2008 (BGVN 33:01) Continuing ashfall during 2006-2007

06/2008 (BGVN 33:06) Frequent ash plumes pose risk to aviation and residents

04/2010 (BGVN 35:04) Frequent ash plumes between July 2008 and August 2009

08/2013 (BGVN 38:08) Explosions during 1-7 September 2013 produce ash plumes




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


06/1969 (CSLP 62-69) Intensified fumarolic activity and minor ash emissions

Card 0585 (10 June 1969) Strong SO2 emissions from large fumaroles

The following is from El Comercio on 1 June 1969. "The Ubinas Volcano, in the Province of Moquegua, has begun to throw off gases from large fumaroles. Passengers arriving from the town of Ubinas have reported that sulfurous gases are being thrown off . . . . the dense smoke later reached the crops, thus causing damages of several hundred thousand soles. It is possible that it may result in serious damages if it should erupt."

Card 0599 (18 June 1969) Normal emissions have slightly increased, with some ash

"Ubinas volcano reported normally emitting gas and steam though fumaroles and activity slightly more intense now that normal and includes some ashes. While local peasants apprehensive, volcano does not appear dangerous at present. No lava flows reported."

Information Contacts: Card 0585 (10 June 1969) El Comercio news, Lima, Perú; Ralph Sherrit, Lima, Perú.
Card 0599 (18 June 1969) American Embassy, Lima, Perú.

07/1969 (CSLP 62-69) Continuous ash emissions in early July

Card 0640 (01 July 1969) Persistent ash and gas emissions

The following is from El Comercio on 28 June 1969. "The Ubinas volcano . . . continues to throw off smoke and sulfurous gases . . . . It is reported that this is the first time in a long while that such a prolonged spewing forth of material has been observed. The townspeople say that before, the smoke and gases were thrown forth only two or three times a year, but now the persistence of the phenomena is quite pronounced. At times the smoke and fumes block off the light to the town of Ubinas."

Card 0659 (11 July 1969) Continuous ash emission since 3 July causing crop damage

The following is from El Comercio on 7 July 1969. "For more than a month now, the inhabitants of the town of Ubinas have been enduring the consequences of emanations of sulfurous gas from the Ubinas volcano. News received during the last 12 hours indicates that the volcano has been throwing off ashes, almost uninterruptedly since 3 July. This very fine ash is burying the fields of adjoining areas and might result in losses to the extent of tens of thousands of soles. The smoke and sulfurous gases, as well as the ashes, may well cause considerable damage."

Information Contacts: Card 0640 (01 July 1969) El Comercio news, Lima, Perú; Ralph Sherrit, Lima, Perú.
Card 0659 (11 July 1969) El Comercio news, Lima, Perú; Ralph Sherrit, Lima, Perú.

12/1985 (SEAN 10:12) Weak fumarolic activity

When geologists visited Ubinas on 12 August, fumarolic activity was weak and emissions were dilute. Some noise was coming from a pit about 300 m in diameter in the N side of the 1-km summit crater. . . .

Information Contacts: M. Decobecq Dominique, Univ. Paris Sud, Orsay, France.

07/1996 (BGVN 21:07) Increased fumarolic activity prompts seismic and other monitoring

Ubinas stratovolcano (figure 1) is known for persistent weak fumarolic activity; this appeared to increase after December 1995 and was vigorous during April 1996. During April five steam vents were located along a ~N40°W-trending fault cutting across the crater's floor and walls. White steam from the fumaroles commonly rose 100-500 m above the crater and occasionally rose 1-1.5 km above the caldera rim. Seismic monitoring during April detected ~50-70 events/day, a suggestion of increased seismicity.

Figure 1. Geologic and topographic map of the Ubinas stratovolcano (regional location shown on inset). Symbols in key are as follows: 1) Ubinas volcano, mainly constructed of Pleistocene andesite lava flows; 2) lava flow cliffs >200 m high and scarps of glaciated lava flows; 3) "old" debris-avalanche deposits; 4) hummocks of recent debris-avalanche deposits; 5) Plinian fallout deposits related to the summit-caldera-forming eruption of Late-glacial age; 6) tephra-fall deposits from the 1600 AD eruption of Huaynaputina volcano; 7) channeled scoria-flow deposits; 8) headwall of caldera or rockslide avalanche; 9) summit caldera; 10) youthful ash cone and ashfall deposits mantling the caldera floor; 11) pit crater and >500-m-high walls cut in hydrothermally altered lava flows; 12) ~N40°W trending strike-slip fault and N45°E trending fractures; and D) lava dome. Drafted by F. Amathe and provided courtesy of J-C. Thouret.

These observations led to designation of the hazard level as "Yellow," and this information was sent to local civil authorities. Scientists installed seismic instruments (three digital PDR-1 Kinemetrics and one visual MEQ-600) on the volcano's W, N, and SE flanks at ~4,800 m elevation.

Continued field work was aimed at assessing hazards and outlining preliminary hazard-zone maps. Potential hazards include debris avalanches, Plinian tephra, phreatic outbursts, and pyroclastic flows and lahars. Debris-avalanche deposits crop out in the Rio Ubinas as far as 10 km downstream. Future debris avalanches could occur if the caldera headwall, which is only 120-400 m thick, failed due to dome extrusion or seismic loading.

Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits include some of Holocene age. The eruption that formed the summit caldera left a conspicuous 3-m-thick Plinian tephra chiefly distributed towards the SSE, in the direction of the village of Ubinas (6 km from the vent). At least three Ubinas tephra-fall layers postdate the 1600 AD eruption of Huaynaputina (a center located 25 km S, figure 1). In contrast to the Plinian fall deposits, the intra-caldera deposits are nearly all ash and lapilli fallout of phreatomagmatic and phreatic origin.

Snowfields on the S-facing summit area above 5,000 m elevation remain during December through July and thus could be melted to generate S- and SE-flank debris flows. Pyroclastic flows could follow the same routes. Recent scoria-flow deposits remaining on the steep NW and N flanks suggest that pyroclastic flows may spill over the lower breaches of the caldera rim and down these slopes.

A 27 June news report in the Lima paper El Comercio briefly mentioned ongoing deformation and seismic studies; it included a panoramic view of the summit's nested craters with the inner pit crater emitting steam. The article also pointed out that the district of Ubinas has ~5,000 inhabitants.

Ubinas (also known as Uvinas and Uvillas) is Perú's most active volcano. Holocene lava flows cover its flanks, but the historical record, which extends back to the mid-1500's, contains evidence of minor explosive eruptions. Ubinas rises about 1,300 m above the altiplano of the Cordillera Occidental. Its summit crater is 200-400 m deep, ~1.5 km in diameter, and hosts a smaller inner crater.

Information Contacts: J-C. Thouret and J-L. Le Pennec, ORSTOM (UR14)-Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), Calle Calatrava 216, Urbinizacion Camino Real, La Molina, Lima 100, Perú (Email: jct@geo.igp.gob.pe); R. Woodman, IGP Lima, and O. Macedo, IGP Volcano and Geophysics Observatory, Cayma-Arequipa, Perú.

03/2006 (BGVN 31:03) Ash eruption beginning 25 March 2006; heightened seismicity since November 2004

Ubinas began erupting ash on 25 March 2006. Since mid-2005 a small increase in fumarolic activity had been seen during visits to the crater by personnel from the Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), UNSA local university, and the Instituto Geologico, Minero y Metalurgico (INGEMMET); it was also reported by local authorities. Increased fumarolic emissions described by INGEMMET were reported on 18 January 2006 by Diario Digital Sur Noticias. Fumaroles started to make strong jet noises, and seismic activity increased, in February 2006. The eruption that began on 25 March, described below, has continued through at least late April.

On 25 March farmers from Querapi village, 4 km from the crater, noted ash deposits on crops. A few millimeters of ash was deposited and quickly removed by rain. The volcano had been mostly cloud-covered during the previous few weeks, but on 27 March residents of Querapi noted a column of ash at 1430. On 30 and 31 March teams from IGP, UNSA, and INGEMMET visited the volcano (figure 2). Although there had been constant snow over the previous days, the summit was completely gray from ashfall. The ash thickness on rocks 2 km NW of the crater was 3 mm, just inside the summit crater there was about 1 cm, and at the inner pit crater edge there was 2 cm. Thick ash surrounded a new 30-m-wide vent in the crater base. This crater was emitting constant ash and gas with larger pulses approximately every 15 minutes. Near the edge of the pit crater were large numbers of flat circular mud discs up to 15 cm in diameter, many with central solid cores. These grew smaller and less frequent with distance. It is thought these are either huge accretionary lapilli, generated in storm clouds above Ubinas, or products of wet eruptions from the new vent. The crater area is dangerous and frequently smothered in ash clouds, so observations remain sketchy.

Figure 2. Photo of Ubinas on 31 March 2006 showing an eruption plume rising from the summit crater. Photo by the Perúvian Civil Defense taken from Moquegua city, provided courtesy of the Associated Press.

Ash emissions through 10 April covered local villages and damaged crops. Clear crop damage was visible around the village of Querapi, with potato and alfalfa leaves and flowers blemished in spots. This is the critical growing time for the crop, and thus any damage is serious for the local farmers. Cattle have been seen suffering from diarrhea.

Short periods of seismic recordings have been made at a site 2,500 m NW of the crater rim. On 20 November 2004 only 16 local events were recorded over 12 hours. In February 2005 there where 96 events over the same time period. Over 12 hours on 27 March 2006 there were 115 events. During this last interval, low-amplitude tremor events lasting 3 minutes on average were recorded, as well as long-period (LP) events. Over the 12 hours of observation the following events were recorded: 62 LP, 18 LP with precursors, 10 volcano-tectonic (VT), five VT with precursors, and 20 tremor events.

Information Contacts: Orlando Macedo, Observatorio de Cayma-Arequipa, Instituto Geofísico del Perú at Arequipa city (IGP-Arequipa), Urb. La Marina B-19, Cayma, Arequipa, Perú (Email: omacedo@geo.igp.gob.pe); Jersy Marino, Instituto Geologico, Minero y Metalurgico (INGEMMET), Perú (Email: jmarino@ingemmet.gob.pe); Benjamin van Wyk, Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans (LMV), OPGC, France (Email: b.vanwyk@opgc.univ-bpclermont.fr); Jean-Philippe Métaxian, Laboratire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique-Univ de Savoie, France (Email: Jean-Philippe.Metaxian@univ-savoie.fr); Perúvian Civil Defense (URL: http://www.indeci.gob.pe/); Diario Digital Sur Noticias, Tacna, Perú (URL: http://www.surnoticias.com/); Associated Press (URL: http://www.ap.org/).

05/2006 (BGVN 31:05) Ash and steam emissions stir hazard and environmental concerns

Ubinas began erupting ash on 25 March 2006 (BGVN 31:03). Randall White from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reported on 1 April that increased fumarolic activity occurred during the end of March. Victor Aguilar from the Universidad de San Agustint, visited the volcano on 31 March. He found strong steam-and-ash emissions occurring. Also, leaves of nearby crops were burned and a sound similar to a jet engine emanated from the vent area. Table 1 gives a summary of some recent plumes. Figure 3 contains an ASTER image of the volcano and surroundings on 8 May 2006.

Table 1. Summary of some recent plume activity from Ubinas. Courtesy of the Buenos Aires VAAC and INGEMMET; satellite imagery courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

    Date (time)           Altitude        Drift      Comments
                                        direction

    06 Apr (1220)         6.1-9.1 km        ?        Ash absent on satellite imagery 
    06 Apr (1900)         6.1-7.3 km       NE
    08 Apr                ?                 ?        Volcanic activity ceased
    09 Apr                6.1-7.3 km       SW
    11 Apr                ?                 ?        Volcanic activity ceased
    13 Apr                ?                 ?        Ash emissions increased, ashfall reached
                                                       7 km from volcano
    15 Apr                6.1-9.1 km        ?        Ash cloud
    16 Apr                ?                 ?        Volcanic activity ceased
    18 Apr (0715-1600)    1-3 km            ?        Continuous emissions of ash and gas
    19 Apr                ~ 3 km            ?        Plume containing ash/lava fragments lasted
                                                       6-7 hours
    20 Apr-22 Apr         ?             NW, W, SW    Plume reached 60 km from the volcano; traces
                                                       of ash reached the Arequipa airport.
    25 Apr-26 Apr         0.2-0.7 km        ?
    04 May-08 May         ~ 6.7 km          ?        See fig. 15
    9-11, 13-14 May       7.3 km (max)      ?
    20 May-25 May         7.3 km (max)      ?
    24 May                6.7 km            E        Plume reported by pilot
    25 May                7 km             NW
    30 May                7.9 km            E        Ash plume seen on satellite imagery
    31 May-05 Jun         7.9 km          N, NE,
                                          SE, S
    09 Jun-11 Jun         6.7 km          E, SW      Ash clouds reported by pilots
Figure 3. A faint white plume rose from the summit of Ubinas on 8 May 2006, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. Courtesy NASA Earth Observatory.

The Perú Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) reported that gas and ash were emitted from Ubinas from 27 March to at least 19 April. On 13 April, ash emissions increased noticeably in comparison to the previous days, with ashfall in the villages of Ubinas, Querapi, and Sacuaya, and as far as 7 km from the volcano. Acid rain was also noted in these villages, particularly between 1400 and 1600 hours on 14 April. Explosions on 13 and 14 April were heard in nearby villages. According to a news report on 18 April, however, officials urged residents of the town of Querapi ~ 5 km from the volcano to evacuate.

On 19 April, a lava dome was observed on the crater floor for the first time. It was incandescent, 60 m in diameter, and 4 m high. Explosions were heard as far as 6 km from the volcano and a plume composed of ash and lava fragments rose ~ 3 km above the volcano. Plumes lasted for 6-7 hours and hazard statements suggested significant danger within 4 km of the crater. The Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) released volcanic ash advisory statements during the report period.

According to news reports, as of 19 April at least 1,000 people living N of the volcano suffered respiratory problems, dozens of livestock died and many more were ill after eating ash-covered grass, and water sources were polluted with ash. Dozens of people from Querapi, the town closest to the volcano, began to evacuate on 21 April. On 22 April, officials declared a state of emergency for the area near the volcano and sent aid for evacuees.

During 25 and 26 April, the volume of ash emitted from the volcano decreased significantly. Gas plumes rose between 200 and 700 m above the volcano's caldera. Seismicity during 22-26 April was higher than normal. The Buenos Aires VAAC posted volcanic ash advisories during the report period.

Several thermal anomalies were observed by MODIS/MODVOLC in 2006 at the following local times: 0105 hours, 27 May; 2220 hours, 31 May; 2225 hours, 7 June; 2210 hours, 18 June; and 2235 hours, 30 June. On 3 June, the Alert Level for Ubinas was increased to Orange due to heightened explosive activity. According to a news report, on 5 June, officials in S Perú prepared to evacuate approximately 480 families; approximately 550 families were evacuated on 10 and 11 June. Ubinas emitted a plume of ash and/or steam on 24 June 2006. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard NASA's Aqua satellite showed the plume moving E.

Information Contacts: Randall A. White, USGS/OFDA Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (Email: rwhite@usgs.gov); Victor Aguilar, Universidad de San Agustin, Perú (Email: aaguilar@yahoo.com); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center; Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET ? Institution of Mining and Metallurgical Geology); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observer (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHarards/).

10/2006 (BGVN 31:10) New reporting reveals ashfalls, large ballistic blocks, lahar hazards, and evacuations

Ubinas began erupting ash on 25 March 2006 (BGVN 31:03 and 31:05); ash eruptions and steam emissions continued through at least 31 October 2006. Eruptive benchmarks during that period included a lava dome in the crater on 19 April. Ashfall in late April forced the evacuation of Querapi residents, who resided ~ 4.5 km SE of the crater's active vent, to Anascapa (S of the summit). Ash columns rose to almost 8 km altitude during May.

This report discusses ongoing eruptions through 31 October 2006 as drawn from Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports and especially from an enlightening 26-page report published in Péru during September 2006 by the Institutio Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico?INGEMMET (Salazar and others, 2006). It includes a detailed digital elevation map with hazard zones.

Background. Ubinas lies 90 km N of the city of Moquegua and 65 km E of the city of Arequipa (figure 4). The bulk of adjacent settlements reside to the SE, and generally at more distance, towards the E. Figure 5 shows a shaded region where airfall deposits took place during the span 1550-1969. The zone of deposits includes some modern settlements.

Figure 4. Map indicating the geographic setting of the Perúvian volcanic front (inset) and the area around Ubinas. From Salazar and others (2006).
Figure 5. The boundary of identified Ubinas ashfall from the years 1550 to 1969 appears as a curve across the S portion of this map, 10-12 km from the summit crater. Note the SE-sector settlements (and their respective distances from the summit crater) for the district capital Ubinas (6.5 km), Tonohaya (7 km), San Miguel (10 km), and Santa Cruz de Anascapa (~ 11 km), and Huarina (15 km). Map taken from Rivera (1998).

The geologic map on figure 6 shows the area of the settlements SE of the summit includes large Holocene deposits, including those from debris avalanche(s) at ~ 3.7 ka, and units containing pyroclastic flows. The map also indicates deposits of volcaniclasics, glacial moraines, airfall-ash layers, and lava flows. Extensive Miocene deposits envelope both the NE flanks (Pampa de Para) and SW flanks.

Figure 6. Geologic map of Ubinas shown here without the key, which is available in the original report. From Salazar and others (2006).

The map of hazard zones (figure 7) indicates a nested, tear-drop shaped set of zones, with comparatively lower inferred hazard to the NE and NW. The SE-trending, elongate area of hazards follows the key drainage in that direction. Elevated hazard zones also follow many of the roads passing through the region.

Figure 7. The SE corner of the Ubinas hazard map, showing the central crater, and the hazard zones that follow the main drainage (Rio Ubinas) leading SE through the most populated region close to the volcano. Map key is omitted. Margins of the map note that its construction was a partnership of numerous groups, including French collaborators at Blaise Pascal University and IRD. Taken from Salazar and others (2006).

Eruptions during 2006. Salazar and others (2006) reported that the current eruptive crisis could be divided into three stages. During July 2005-27 March 2006, the eruption was primarily gas discharge rising 100-300 m above the crater. During 27 March-8 April the eruptions consisted of ash emissions and gas produced by phreatic activity (figure 8). After a moderate explosion on 19 April, Ubinas produced ash and gas, and explosions ejected volcanic bombs. Several views into the crater appear on figure 9.

Figure 8. Ubinas gas emissions as seen from unstated direction on 4 April 2006. From Salazar and others (2006).
Figure 9. Views looking down into the Ubinas crater on 31 March, 19 April, and 26 May 2006. The former was taken in comparatively mild conditions. The 19 April photo was taken when a 60-m-diameter lava body was first seen on the crater floor (the color version of this photo shows faint red incandescence penetrating the steamy scene). The 26 May captured a relatively clear view of the steaming dome on the crater floor. March and April photos from and Salazar and others (2006); May photo from the INGEMMET website.

On 7 May 2006 a moderate explosion sent ash to ~ 3 km above the summit. Although the situation calmed in the following days, an impressive bomb fell 200 m from the crater on 24 May 2006 (figure 10). Larger outbursts occurred on 29 May and 2 June, prompting the civil defense decision to evacuate residents in the S-flank Ubinas valley, including the settlements of Ubinas, Tonohaya, San Miguel, Huatahua, and Escacha. Residents evacuated were lodged in refugee camps (figure 11).

Figure 10. Ubinas eruptions in May 2006 ejected volcanic bombs, seen here in their impact craters. A 2-m-diameter bomb (top), struck ~ 200 m from the crater. A crater containing a large, partly buried, smooth-faced bomb is seen in the bottom photo. Numerous bucket-sized angular blocks appear on the far side of the impact crater. Two geologists stand adjacent a ~ 2-m-long block that ended up on the impact crater's rim. The bomb fragments were of andesitic composition. Top photo from Salazar and others (2006); bottom photo from INGEMMET website.
Figure 11. Settlement camp housing families taking refuge from Ubinas ash. This camp, named Chacchagen, housed people from the S-flank settlements of Ubinas, Tonohaya, San Miguel, Huatahua, and Escacha. Inset shows the ash-dusted face of a local child. Courtesy of Salazar and others (2006).

On 18 June instruments recorded two explosions. Ash clouds discharged; the second one also ejected incandescent blocks ~ 1 km SE of the crater. The early stages of a rising plume seen at 0822 on 18 July appears on figure 12. Similar magnitude ash emissions were noted on 23, 24, and 30 June 2006, and incandescent rocks fell up to 1.2 km from the summit crater. During 10, 17-19, 22, 27 July, and 7 August 2006 there were various explosions (figure 12). Resulting ash clouds extended more than 70 km SE or SW.

Figure 12. A moderate Ubinas explosion on 18 July 2006 generated this rising ash plume. Courtesy of Salazar and others (2006).

In August 2006, ash plumes reached 4.6-7.6 km altitude and were occasionally visible on satellite imagery. The direction of drift of the ash varied widely. On 12 August, ash dispersed more than 100 km to the SE and S. On 14 August an astronaut on the International Space Station took a picture of the ash plume from Ubinas (figure 13).

Figure 13. This image taken from the International Space Station (ISS) captures Ubinas discharging a light-colored ash cloud roughly to the S (N is up on this photo). The cloud had been observed earlier on satellite imagery at 0600 local (1100 UTC) on 14 August 2006. One-hour and 45-minutes later (at 1245 UTC), an ISS astronaut took this picture at non-vertical (oblique) angle to the Earth. Pumice and ash blanket the volcanic cone and surrounding area, giving this image an overall gray appearance. Shadows on the N flank throw several older lava flows into sharp relief. (Photograph ISS013-E-66488 acquired with a Kodak 760C digital camera using an 800 mm lens). Photo provided by the ISS Crew.

The most significant effect on people and the environment has come from ashfall (figure 14). GOES satellite images indicate visible airborne ash for distances greater than 60 km from the vent. Figure 14 indicates net ash accumulation through about August 2006, extrapolating sampling points with concentric circles. The report specifically noted ash thicknesses of 1.5 cm at ~ 4.5 km SE in Querapi, 0.1-0.8 cm in Sacoaya, 0.5-0.8 cm in Ubinas, 0.3-0.4 cm in Anascapa, 0.15 mm in Huatahua, and less than 0.1 cm in Chacchagén. The accumulation has apparently been due to ongoing ashfalls On 13 April, several millimeters of ash dusted all surfaces in Querapi, ~ 4.5 km from the center of the summit crater.

Figure 14. Net ash accumulation around Ubinas from start of eruption in March through about August 2006. Ash has covered agricultural fields in the valley and pastures in the highlands, seriously affecting the two main economic activities in the area, agriculture and cattle ranching; and has caused respiratory and skin problems. Courtesy of Salazar and others (2006).

Aviation reports of ash plumes. As summarized in table 2, ash clouds were reported by the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) on 2 May and then during 2 August through October on a nearly daily basis. The observation sources were usually pilot's reports (AIREPs) and/or satellite images (GOES 12). After 8 August, ash emissions were essentially continuous to 31 October. During the later interval, the aviation color code was generally Red. Plumes rose to 10 km and higher during 23-26 October.

Table 2. Compilation of aviation reports (specifically, 195 Volcanic Ash Advisories, VAAs) on Ubinas and its plumes during May through 31 October. The second column shows some contractions used in the table (eg., "VA CLD FL 160" means "Volcanic ash cloud at Flight Level 160"). Flight Level is an aviation term for altitude in feet divided by 100 (eg., FL 200 = 20,000 feet = ~ 7 km altitude). Courtesy of the Buenos Aires VAAC.

    Observation      Eruption details: VA (Volcanic Ash) CLD (Cloud)
    date (2006)                        OBS (Observed) FL (Flight Level)

    02 May           VA CLD FL180/200 MOV SE
    02 Aug           VA CLD DENSE ASH CLD FL160/230 MOV NE. ASH POORLY DEFINED VISIBLE GOES-12
                       SATELLITE IMAGE
    03 Aug-04 Aug    VA CLD FL220/240 MOV SW
    05 Aug           VA CLD OBS FL370 MOV NE
    06 Aug-07 Aug    VA CLD OBS. ACTIVITY REPORTED CONTINUOUS AND INCREASING EMISSION FL160/260
                       SNTR OVER PEAK SPREAD FROM THE SUMMIT IN ALL DIRECTIONS UP TO A DISTANCE
                       OF 20 KM
    07 Aug-08Aug     VA CLD OBS FL200 MOV E/NE
    10 Aug-14 Aug    VA CLD OBS FL180/245 MOV SE. ASH OBS IN SATELLITE IMAGE
    17 Aug-18 Aug    VA CLD FL 160-200 MOV SE/ESE APROX. 60NM
    19 Aug           VA CLD FL180/250 MOV SW
    20 Aug-21 Aug    VA CLD FL180/230 MOV ESE/SE APROX. 20NM
    22 Aug           VA CLD OBS FL180/300 STNR ~ MOV SE
    25 Aug-26 Aug    VA CLD OBS FL230/235 MOV S. ASH NOT IDENTIFIABLE ON SATELLITE IMAGERY
    28 Aug-30 Aug    VA CLD OBS FL160/250 MOV SE. SATELLITE IMAGERY REVEALED A LIGHT TRACE OF ASH
                       EXTENDING TO SE OF THE SUMMIT
    31 Aug           VA CLD OBS FL 160/250 APROX MOV NE~E
    01 Sep-23 Sep    VA CLD OBS FL 160/250 MOV NE~E
    24 Sep           VA CLD FL300 MOV SSE
    27 Sep           VA CLD OBS FL180/230 and up to FL280
    01 Oct-11 Oct    VA CLD OBS FL160/180 MOV E~ S
    12 Oct-14 Oct    Emissions intermittent VA CLD OBS FL160/220 MOV SE~NE~N
    15 Oct-21 Oct    VA CLD FL160~ 240 MOV S~ SE
    23 Oct-26 Oct    VA CLD FL180/350 (Unusually high altitude) MOV N~E~W
    26 Oct-29 Oct    VA CLD FL180/240 MOV N~NW swing to S
    30 Oct-31 Oct    VA CLD FL 280/300 MOV SW

References. Rivera, M., 1998, El volcán Ubinas (sur del Perú): geología, historia eruptiva y evaluación de las amenazas volcánicas actuales: Tesis Geólogo, UNMSM, 132 p.

Rivera, M., Thouret, J.C., Gourgaud, A., 1998, Ubinas, el volcán mas activo del sur del Perú desde 1550: Geología y evaluación de las amenazas volcánicas. Boletin de la Sociedad Geológica del Perú, v. 88, p. 53-71.

Salazar, J.M., Porras, M.R., Lourdes, C.D., and Pauccara, V.C., 2006, Evaluación de seguridad físca de áreas aledañas al volcán Ubinas: INGEMMET (Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico Dirección de Geología Ambiental, September 2006), 26 p.

Thouret, J.C., Rivera, M., Worner, G., Gerbe, M.C., Finizola, A., Fornari, M., and Gonzales, K., 2005, Ubinas: the evolution of the historically most active volcano in southern Perú: Bull. Volc., v. 67, p. 557-589.

Information Contacts: Jersy Mariño Salazar, Marco Rivera Porras, Lourdes Cacya Dueñas, Vicentina Cruz Pauccara, Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Av. Canadá No 1470, Lima, Perú (URL: http://www.ingemmet.gob.pe/); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Argentina (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/AG/messages.html); ISS Crew, Earth Observations Experiment and the Image Science & Analysis Group, NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway Houston, TX 77058, USA (URL: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/johnson/home/); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/).

01/2008 (BGVN 33:01) Continuing ashfall during 2006-2007

Ubinas began erupting ash on 25 March 2006 (BGVN 31:03 and 31:05). As reported in BGVN 31:10, ash eruptions and steam emissions continued through 31 October 2006. This report discusses ongoing eruptions through December 2007 as drawn from Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports and the Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET).

From November 2006 through December 2007, emissions of volcanic ash, rocks, and gases with water and steam were essentially continuous. INGEMMET authorities indicated that during March 2007 the volcano generated increased ashfall behavior that significantly affected people and the environment. At the beginning of the month, small explosions occurred every 6-8 days but the rate of activity increased toward the end. On 30 March 2007, nearby residents felt a strong explosion. A large ash plume vented from the volcano's summit and local communities were blanketed beneath falling ash. According to INGEMMET authorities, most of Querapi, a town ~ 4.5 km SE of the crater's active vent, was covered in volcanic ash, and the town of Anascapa, 6 km E, also experienced ashfall.

Volcanic ash clouds blown into the atmosphere also presented a hazard to aviation. As summarized in table 3, ash clouds were nearly continuously reported by the Buenos Aires VAAC and the INGEMMET. Plume heights reached as high as 9.1 km in May and again in November 2007. The aviation warning color code was generally Red through the period. The reports were based on satellite imagery and pilot reports. No thermal alerts were noted from the University of Hawaii's Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODIS satellite-based thermal alert system during 2006 or 2007.

Table 3. Compilation of Volcanic Ash Advisories for aviation from Ubinas during November 2006 through December 2007. Courtesy of the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) and the Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET).

    Date                     Altitude of    Flight Level    Direction
                             Plume (km)     (thousands      of Plume
                                             of feet)

    3-16 Nov 2006             5.5-7.3       190-260         SW, S, SW
    25 Nov 2006               5.5           180             NE
    2 Dec 2006                5.5           180             N
    27-30 Dec 2006            4.9-8.5       160-280         E
    28 Jan 2007               5.5-6.9       180-220         SE
    2-5 Feb 2007              5.5           180             S, SW
    18-21 Feb 2007            5.5-7.0       180-230         E, SW
    11, 14 Mar 2007           5.5-6.4       180-210         N, SW
    30 Mar 2007               5.5           180             E
    5, 7-9, 10-11 Apr 2007    5.5-7.8       180-270         E, SE, S, SW, W
    17-18, 22, 24 Apr 2007    5.5-7.2       180-280         NW, SW, SE
    2-5 May 2007              5.5-9.1       180/300         N, S, SE, SW
    12, 15-16 May 2007        5.5-8.2       180-270         SE, N, SW
    17, 19-22 May 2007        5.5-9.1       180-300         E, SE
    22-28 May 2007            5.5-7.3       180-240         NE, SE
    30 May - 6 Jun 2007       3.7-7.6       120-250         NE, SE
    12-17 Jun 2007            5.5-6.7       180-230         NE, E, SW, W
    27-28 Jun 2007            5.5-6.7       180-230         SW, NW, E
    4 Jul 2007                5.5-6.1       180-200         S
    23-25 Jul 2007            5.9-6.1       190-200         SE, S
    9 Aug 2007                6.1           200             SE
    11-14 Sep 2007            5.5-7.6       180-250         E, SE
    20 Sep 2007               5.5-6.4       180-210         E
    5-7 Oct 2007              5.5-6.4       180-210         N, S
    11-13, 15 Oct 2007        5.5-7.6       180-250         N, SE
    19-27 Oct 2007            5.5-8.5       180-280         NW, NE
    1, 3-6 Nov 2007           5.5-7.6       180-250         NE, SE
    11-12 Nov 2007            5.5-6.7       180-220         NE
    16, 18, 20 Nov 2007       5.5-7.9       180-260         NE
    24-27 Nov 2007            6.1-9.1       200-300         SE, E, SW
    28-29 Nov 2007            6.7-7.6       220-250         SW, NE
    4-7, 10 Dec 2007          5.5-8.5       180-280         NE
    17 Dec 2007               5.5-6.7       180-220         N

Information Contacts: Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Av. Canadá 1470, San Borja, Lima 41, Perú (URL: http://www.ingemmet.gob.pe/); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Argentina (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/AG/messages.html).

06/2008 (BGVN 33:06) Frequent ash plumes pose risk to aviation and residents

Our most recent report on Ubinas (BGVN 33:01) discussed ongoing eruptions with continuous emissions of volcanic ash, rock, and gases during 2006-2007. During that previously discussed interval, ash plumes sometimes reached ~ 9 km altitudes at times, posing a hazard to aviation, ashfall was heavy. The current report discusses activity from the end of the previous report (17 December 2007) through 15 July 2008. During this period, ash plumes were frequent, as indicated in table 4. No thermal alerts have been detected by the University of Hawaii's Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODIS satellite-based thermal alert system since 27 December 2006.

Table 4. Compilation of Volcanic Ash Advisories for aviation from Ubinas during 19 December 2007 through July 1, 2008. Courtesy of the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) and the Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET).

    Date               Plume altitude    Plume direction
                           (km)

    19-25 Dec 2007        5.5-7          NE, SW
    23 Feb 2008           5.5-8.5        SE
    02 Mar 2008           5.5-6.1        SE
    09 Mar 2008           7              W, SW
    17 Mar 2008           5.5?6.1        N
    26 Mar 2008           3.7-6.7        SW
    01 Apr 2008           3.7-6.7        NW
    06 Apr 2008           5.5-6.7        E
    15 Apr 2008           5.5-7          ENE
    19-22 Apr 2008        5.5-7.6        ESE, NE
    23 Apr 2008           5.5-9.1        SE, S
    30 Apr-03 May 2008    5.5-9.1        NE, E, SE
    09 May 2008           5.5-7          E
    12 May 2008           5.5-7          SE
    15 May 2008           5.5            E, SW
    19 May 2008           8.5            E, SW
    22-24 May 2008        4.9-7.9        S, E, NE, SE
    26 May 2008           5.4            SSE
    28-29 May 2008        5.5-6.1        NE, SE
    03 June 2008          4.6            SSW
    07 June 2008          7.3            S
    13 June 2008          6.7            S
    18 June 2008          5.5-5.8        S, SE, and NE
    22 June 2008          5.5-7.6        S, SE, and NE
    26 June 2008          5.5-6.1        NE
    07 July 2008          5.5-5.8        NE
    09-10 July 2008       5.5-5.8        E
    15 July 2008          5.5-5.8        E

According to the ash advisories issued from the Buenos Aires VAAC, the aviation warning color code for Ubinas during the reporting period was variously orange or red. In terms of hazard status on the ground, a news article on 30 June 2008 indicated that local civil defense officials had maintained the Alert level at Yellow. They noted that small explosions and ash-and-gas emissions had continued during the previous two months. Families at immediate risk from the village of San Pedro de Querapi in the vicinity of the volcano have been relocated but have returned to their fields to pursue their agacultural activities. The population of local communities and their livestock had suffered the effects of gas and ash emissions, and local authorities had begun to discuss the possible relocation of about 650 affected families from six towns (Escacha, Tonoaya, San Migues, San Pedro de Querapi, Huataga and Ubinas). The article noted that officials recognized that the relocation process could take several years and should be the villager's decision and not one forced on them.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Av. Canadá 1470, San Borja, Lima 41, Perú (URL: http://www.ingemmet.gob.pe/); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Argentina (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/AG/messages.html); La República Online (URL: http://www.larepublica.com.pe).

04/2010 (BGVN 35:04) Frequent ash plumes between July 2008 and August 2009

Eruptions at Ubinas between March 2006 and July 2008 caused ashfall in local villages and damaged crops (BGVN 31:03, 31:05, 31:10, 33:01, 33:06). Families from the village of San Pedro de Querapi had been relocated, however they returned to their fields to pursue their agricultural activities. Local authorities have discussed the possible relocation, over several years, of about 650 families from six towns (Escacha, Tonoaya, San Migues, San Pedro de Querapi, Huataga and Ubinas).

Persistent fumarolic plumes continued through 2008 (figure 15) along with intermittent ash explosions (figure 16). Pilot reports and satellite imagery resulted in frequent aviation warnings of ash plumes (table 5) during July-November 2008, January-March 2009, and May-August 2009. It is likely that additional explosion plumes were not observed; for example, a dark ash plume on 8 January 2008 (figure 16) was not previously reported. Most plumes rose a short distance above the summit, although a few went to about 10 km altitude (4.4 km above the summit), including one on 15 March 2009 (figure 17).

Figure 15. Volcanic activity at Ubinas, September 2005 through 2 December 2008. Courtesy of Instituto Geologico Minero y Metalurgico (INGEMMET) report of June 2009.

Table 5. Compilation of Volcanic Ash Advisories for aviation from Ubinas during 23 July 2008 through 23 August 2009. All reported plumes were reported as ash-bearing unless otherwise noted. Altitudes are approximate; note that the summit is above 5.6 km elevation. Courtesy of the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) and the Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET).

    Date               Plume altitude (km)    Plume direction    Remarks

    23 Jul 2008            5.5-5.8            SE
    18 Aug 2008            5.5-6.4            W                  Pilot report
    26-27 Aug 2008         5.5-6.1            N                  Satellite imagery, pilot report
    02 Sep 2008            5.5-6.1            S                  Satellite imagery, pilot report
    05-06 Sep 2008         5.5-6.4            NE, SE
    10, 13-15 Sep 2008     5.5-10.1           SW, S, SE,NE
    17 Sep 2008            10.1               NE
    18 Sep 2008            5.5-6.4            -
    30 Sep 2008            5.5-8.8            SSE
    01-03 Oct 2008         5.5-6.1            N, NE
    11-13 Oct 2008         5.5-7.0            SE, W
    15-21 Oct 2008         4.9-7.0            SE, NW
    22 Oct 2008            5.5-6.7            S
    31 Oct 2008            5.5-6.7            E
    30 Nov 2008            5.5-6.1            SW
    05 Jan 2009            5.5                SE
    11 Jan 2009            7.3                NE
    31 Jan 2009            6.7                SW
    11-16 Feb 2009         5.7-6.5            NE, N, W, SW       Steam, steam-and-ash
    23 Feb 2009            6.2-7.6            S
    04 Mar 2009            5.8                SW
    11-12 Mar 2009         5.5-7.3            NE
    15 Mar 2009            9.1-9.8            -
    18 Mar 2009            7.9                -                  Pilot report
    15-19 May 2009         5.5-7.6            SW, NW, SSE        Pilot report
    20 May 2009            5.3                NE
    25 May 2009            -                  -                  Two explosions (news report)
    29, 31 May 2009        5.5-6.7            NE, SW
    01 Jun 2009            -                  -                  Blue gas plume with some ash
    02 Jun 2009            0.9-1.5            E                  Explosion, gas-and-ash plume
    05-06 Jun 2009         6.1-7.9            W, SW, S           Satellite imagery, Pilot report
    09 Jun 2009            6.1-7.6            NE                 Satellite imagery
    11 Jun 2009            5.5-7.9            NE, E, SE          Satellite imagery
    13 Jun 2009            6.7                SE                 No satellite confirmation
    14 Jun 2009            7.6                E                  GOES-12 satellite imagery
    15 Jun 2009            7.9                NE                 Satellite imagery
    04 Jul 2009            6.7-9.1            NE
    06, 15, 23 Aug 2009    -                  -                  No satellite confirmation
Figure 16. Photographs of explosions at Ubinas, 2006-2008. Courtesy of INGEMMET.
Figure 17. Photograph of an ash explosion on 15 March 2009 at 1156. Photo taken by R. Amache, courtesy of INGEMMET.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Av. Canadá 1470, San Borja, Lima 41, Perú (URL: http://www.ingemmet.gob.pe/); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Argentina (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/AG/messages.html); La República Online (URL: http://www.larepublica.com.pe/).

08/2013 (BGVN 38:08) Explosions during 1-7 September 2013 produce ash plumes

During 2008 through August 2009 Ubinas emitted persistent fumarolic plumes and had intermittent ash explosions (BGVN 35:04). This activity led to frequent aviation warnings. The current report discusses a phreatic eruption during 1-7 September 2013 that included nine explosions. The location of Ubinas, the most active volcano in Peru, is shown in figure 18.

Figure 18. Map of Peru showing the location of Ubinas. Courtesy of USGS.

Between the beginning of September 2009 and the end of August 2013, the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reported two additional ash plumes in aviation warnings on 18 July 2010 and 4 July 2013. According to a pilot report, the 4 July 2013 ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km and drifted W; however, no ash was detected in satellite images amid clear conditions. The IGP did not report any increase in the earthquake number on 4 July, but indicated that the seismic energy liberated increased significantly on that date, from about 24-58 megajoules during 1-3 July to 74 megajoules before decreasing to 37 on 5 July and remained between 5 and 22 megajoules through 15 July 2013.

The Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and the Observatorio Volcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI-INGEMMET) reported that a phreatic eruption at Ubinas beginning 1 September 2013 included nine explosions (figure 19). According to a news account (The Raw Story) seismologist Victor Aguilar of the Geophysical Institute of the University of San Agustin de Arequipa told the Agence France-Presse that the first explosion was strong and was followed by a series of lesser blasts. Most of the explosions generated ash plumes that rose 1.5 2 km above the crater. A brief description of the explosions is presented in table 6. IGP monitors Ubinas continuously with a network of four telemetered stations. Figure 20 shows the fourth explosion, seen on 3 September 2013.

Table 6. Description of the explosions at Ubinas during 1-7 September 2013, and another ash emission on 22 October 2013. MJ is megajoules. ND is not determined as of 27 September. Courtesy of IGP and OVI INGEMMET.

Explosion Date and local time Energy (MJ) Duration (sec) Comments
1 1 Sept, 2246 1765 110 Ballistics up to 2 m in diameter ejected, minor ashfall 2 km ENE.
2 2 Sept, 1552 666 292 Fewer ballistics than first explosion.  Large gas and ash plume to 2 km above crater.
3 2 Sept, 2350 122 279 Ash plume
4 3 Sept, 0809 139 296 Gas and ash plume up to 2 km above crater; minor ashfall >40 km NW affected small towns.
5 3 Sept, 1021 58 288 Gas and ash plume to 1.6 km above crater
6 3 Sept, 1029 313 74 Gas and ash plume to 1.6 km above crater
7 4 Sept, 1807 505      350
8 5 Sept, 1620 191 321
9 7 Sept, 1036 ND      ND
10 22 Oct ND ND Non-explosive gas-and-ash emissions
Figure 19. Photo showing the gas and ash plume from Explosion 2 of the phreatic eruption at Ubinas, which was taken on 2 September 2013. Courtesy of IGP and OVI-INGEMMET.
Figure 20. Photo of Explosion 4 of the phreatic eruption at Ubinas, taken on 3 September 2013. Courtesy of IGP and OVI INGEMMET.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were measured with a mini-DOAS spectrometer, shortly after Explosion 4; the average SO2 concentration was 155 metric tons/day.

According to a news account (Phys.org), on 12 September 2013, Peru declared a state of emergency in nine districts threatened by the toxic gases and ash spewing from Ubinas. Authorities were distributing masks and have given themselves a 60 day period to relocate villagers from areas where ash is damaging crops and polluting water sources.

Information Contacts: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.meteofa.mil.ar/vaac/vaac.htm); Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) (URL: http://www.igp.gob.pe); Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Av. Canadá 1470, San Borja, Lima 41, Perú (URL: http://www.ingemmet.gob.pe/);

USAID USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) (URL: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vdap/); phys.org (URL: phys.org); and The Raw Story (URL: www.rawstory.com).

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. It is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I was followed by construction of Ubinas II beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Jul 4 2014 Sep 11 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 2010 Jul 18 ] [ 2010 Jul 18 ] Uncertain 1  
2006 Mar 25 (?) 2009 Jul 4 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1969 Jun Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1956 May 1956 Oct 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1951 Jul 23 ± 8 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1937 Jun Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1906 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1869 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1867 May 24 1867 May 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1865 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1862 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1830 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1826 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1784 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1677 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1667 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1662 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1600 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1550 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1080 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected)
6850 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
8560 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Uvillas | Uvinas
Volcán Ubinas, seen here from the west, is Perú's most active volcano. A small, 1.2-km-wide caldera that cuts the top of Ubinas gives it a truncated appearance. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200-m deep. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1988 (U.S. Geological Survey).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Bullard F M, 1962. Volcanoes of Southern Peru. Bull Volc, 24: 443-453.

de Silva S L, Francis P W, 1990. Potentially active volcanoes of Peru - observations using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Space Shuttle imagery. Bull Volc, 52: 286-301.

de Silva S L, Francis P W, 1991. Volcanoes of the Central Andes. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 216 p.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Hantke G, Parodi I, 1966. Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 19: 1-73.

Lavallee Y, de Silva S L, Salas G, Byrnes J M, 2009. Structural control on volcanism at the Ubinas, Huaynaputina, and Ticscani Volcanic Group (UHTVG), southern Peru. J Volc Geotherm Res, 186: 253-264.

Thouret J-C, Rivera M, Worner G, Gerbe M-C, Finizola A, Fornari M, Gonzales K, 2005. Ubinas: the evolution of the historically most active volcano in southern Peru. Bull Volc: 67: 557-589.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera(s)
Lava dome(s)
Pyroclastic cone

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Dacite
Rhyolite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
180
1,195
14,607
1,136,785

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Ubinas Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.