Report on Kilauea (United States) — 13 October-19 October 2010
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
13 October-19 October 2010
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2010. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 13 October-19 October 2010. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 13-19 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between 155 and 160 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 15-20 m above that level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW.
At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed small lava flows and at least one ocean entry at the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta. A break-out lava flow began just west of the end of Highway 130 on 15 October. During 15-19 October the lava filled in low areas between the highway and the inactive flows that had stopped near Kalapana Gardens earlier in the year. A vent on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor effused lava during 12-14 October and was incandescent during 15-19 October.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.