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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 6 October-12 October 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 New
La Palma Spain 2021 Sep 19 New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Kadovar Papua New Guinea 2018 Jan 5 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Apr 1 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevados de Chillan Chile 2016 Jan 8 Continuing
Pavlof United States 2021 Aug 5 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) 2021 Feb 2 ± 2 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 17,094 individual reports over 1,084 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 316 different volcanoes.

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Agung Concepcion Ijen Little Sitkin Peuet Sague Spurr
Ahyi Copahue Iliamna Llaima Pinatubo St. Helens
Aira Cotopaxi Iliwerung Loihi Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Akan Cuicocha Inielika Lokon-Empung Poas Sulu Range
Alaid Cumbal Ioto Lopevi Popocatepetl Sumbing
Alu-Dalafilla Dabbahu Irazu Machin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambae Dempo Iya Makian Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambang Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Anatahan Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Aniakchak Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kambalny Marapi Raung Talang
Antuco Egon Kanaga Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Martin Reventador Tanaga
Arenal Epi Karangetang Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Askja Erta Ale Karthala Mauna Loa Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asosan Etna Karymsky Mayon Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Atka Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi McDonald Islands Rotorua Telica
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Melimoyu Ruang Tenerife
Avachinsky Fernandina Katmai Merapi Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Awu Fogo Kavachi Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fonualei Kelimutu Misti, El Sabancaya Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Miyakejima Sakar Tofua
Azumayama Fourpeaked Kerinci Momotombo Salak Tokachidake
Bagana Fuego Ketoi Monowai San Cristobal Tolbachik
Balbi Fujisan Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Miguel Toliman
Bamus Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Tongariro
Banda Api Galeras Kikai Mutnovsky Sangay Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galunggung Kilauea Myojinsho Sangeang Api Turrialba
Barren Island Gamalama Kirishimayama Nabro Santa Ana Ubinas
Batur Gamkonora Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gareloi Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gaua Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gorely Korovin Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Great Sitkin Koryaksky Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Grimsvotn Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Cameroon Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Cayambe Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chaiten Hekla La Palma Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Osorno Siple Yasur
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Panarea Sorikmarapi
Ciremai Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Papandayan Sotara
Cleveland Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Parker Soufriere Hills
Colima Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colo Ibu Lewotolok Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued in Halema`uma`u Crater during 6-12 October. At the beginning of the eruption, on 29 September, lava erupted from vents along the floor and from the W wall of the crater, though by 8 October only the W vent was active. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained high and were 5,300 tonnes per day on 8 October. A 10-m-wide, horseshoe-shaped spatter rampart had formed around the W vent and was open to the E where lava was feeding the lake. Lava fountains from the W vent were generally 12-15 m high but decreased to 4 m during 10-11 October. The total erupted volume was an estimated 15.9 million cubic meters on 8 October and the lake was as deep as 40 m on 12 October. The lava lake was not level; the W end was 2-3 m higher than the N and S parts of the lake and 5 m higher than the E end. Cooled and crusted parts of the lake’s surface overturned, or “foundered,” in all parts of the lake, though by 11 October foundering was not observed in the E. HVO noted that the central island (or raft) of cooler material from the 2020 eruption remained above the surface as the lava lake rose, and other smaller rafts had reemerged in the E and N parts of the lake. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for La Palma
The eruption at La Palma continued during 6-12 October, characterized by Strombolian explosions, lava fountaining from multiple vents, advancing and branching lava flows, and daily ash emissions. Eruption details are based on official sources including PEVOLCA (Plan de Emergencias Volcánicas de Canarias) steering committee summaries. Seismicity continued to be elevated with most earthquakes located 10-15 km deep (though some deeper than 35 km) in the same area where the swarm first began on 11 September; dozens of events were felt by local residents and some were felt across the entire island.

The largest earthquake, at 0816 on 12 October, was a M 4.1 at a depth of 37 km. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated at high levels between 4,522 and 21,868 tons per day. Sulfur dioxide plumes drifted in multiple directions; on 8 October they reached the Caribbean and on 12 October plumes were over northern Africa, Spain, and Portugal. The main cone had at least three effusive vents and another vent to the N was also active. Multiple collapses of parts of the cone sometimes sent large blocks of cooler lava rafting down the flows. The lava delta was fed by numerous streams of lava during most of the week. Plumes of steam containing hydrochloric acid rose from the edge of the lava delta and were quickly dissipated by the wind; local resident were not affected.

On 6 October a breakout lava flow from the W end of the main flow field traveled S between Los Guirres and El Charcó (previously evacuated), destroying crops and buildings. The flow covered about 0.4 square kilometers and was about 350 m from the coast. Ash plumes rose 3-3.2 km (10,000-10,500 ft) a.s.l. during 6-7 October. On 8 October a new vent formed on the main cone and ash plumes rose as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash accumulation at the La Palma and Tenerife North (on Tenerife Island) airports caused a temporary shutdown of operations until the ash was removed. On 9 October a collapse of the N part of the cone sent a wide, multi-lobed flow carrying larger blocks NW over older flows that quickly advanced W along the N margins of the flow field, covering crops and destroying buildings in both Todoque and an industrial area. Ash plumes continued to rise from the vents; lightning was visible in the plume at times.

By 10 October the flow field was 1,520 m wide, and covered 4.9-5.7 square kilometers, depending on the source of the estimates. Between 726 and 1,323 buildings had been engulfed by lava and more than 1.3 square kilometers of crops were lost. About 6,000 people had been evacuated. A partial collapse of the cone allowed the inner lava lake to spill out, sending flows and very large cooled blocks downslope. Ash plumes rose 3.5 km a.s.l. and caused ashfall to the S. Video showed lava fountains rising 500 m above the vent late that night. By 11 October the lava delta had grown mainly to the N and S, and was an estimated 0.34 square kilometers in size, though flows feeding it had slowed. Dense dark ash plumes were seen rising from the main vents. The most northern flow had continued to advance and was 300 m from the coast. The flows overtook a concrete plant, prompting authorities to instruct residents in El Paso and Los Llanos de Aridane to remain indoors and take measures to reduce exposure to toxic fumes. On 12 October the advancing northern flow caused the pre-emptive evacuation of the La Laguna area, totaling 700-800 people. The flow continued to cover crops and was 200 m from the coast, but had slowed. The lockdown for El Paso and Los Llanos de Aridane was lifted after air quality improved. Ash plumes from the main vent rose 3.5 km a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at Red (the highest level on a four-color scale) for affected communities.
Sources: Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN), Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), Gobierno de Canaries, Advanced geospatial Data Management Platform (ADAM), Asociación Volcanes de Canarias, Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (IGME), Aena, 1-1-2 Canarias
Report for Aira
JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 4-11 October. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 400 tons per day on 5 October. An explosion at 0517 on 8 October ejected material 600-900 m away from the crater and produced an eruption plume that was obscured by weather clouds. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Kadovar
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-9 October ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 7 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 6-12 October. White-and-gray plumes generally rose as high as 800 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. A VONA stated that on 7 October and ash plume rose 1.9 km above the summit and drifted W. Rumbling and banging sounds were reported daily. Incandescent material was ejected daily as far as 300 m away from the vent in multiple directions, though during 5-6 October incandescent material was ejected as far as 1 km SE. BNPB noted that 25-26 eruptive events per day were sometimes recorded before activity increased in October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported minor morphological changes to Merapi’s SW lava dome, located just below the SW rim and in the summit crater, and no changes to the summit crater dome during 1-7 October. The SW dome grew about 3 m taller had an estimated volume of 1.679 million cubic meters, and the summit lava dome had an estimated volume of 2.854 million cubic meters. As many as 76 lava avalanches traveled a maximum of 2 km SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-5 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevados de Chillan
SERNAGEOMIN reported continuing explosive and effusive activity at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater during 16-30 September though weather conditions often prevented visual confirmation. Explosions generated plumes with low ash content that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. A new lava dome (Dome 3) in the crater was first identified on 15 September and was 27 x 40 m, elongated NW-SE, and 990 square meters in area. The dome formation was preceded by a decrease in the extrusion rates and temperatures of the L5 and L6 lava flows. By 24 September growth at Dome 3 reached 36 x 43 m and covered 2,137 square meters. Dome 4 was first visible on 29 September, adjacent to Dome 3 on the NE side, and produced a new lava flow (L7) that traveled 50 m down the flank between the L5 and L6 flows. The L5 lava flow also began to advance.

On 5 October the L5 and L7 lava flows advanced and nighttime incandescence from both flows increased. Incandescence from the crater was visible in webcam images at night during 8-9 October. On 9 October a long-period earthquake was recorded at 0706 on 9 October; an associated emission rose more than 240 m above the vent and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that seismicity at Pavlof remained elevated during 6-12 October. Two explosions were recorded by infrasound network during 6-7 October. Mostly cloudy conditions obscured satellite and webcam images most days. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code remained at Watch and Orange, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 27 explosions at Sabancaya during 4-10 October. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. One thermal anomaly originating from the lava dome in the summit crater was identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 6-12 October. Seismicity remained elevated and a few explosions per day were detected in infrasound data. Although weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views, discontinuous, low-level ash emissions were visible rising to altitudes up to 3 km (10,000 ft a.s.l.) and drifting E during 8-9 October. Low-level ash emissions were also visible in webcam images during 9-12 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 1, 4, and 6-7 October. Plumes of resuspended ash drifted 200 km SE during 6-7 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that during 4-10 October activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity from three vents in Area N (North Crater area) and six vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area). Explosions from two vents in the N1 vent (Area N) ejected lapilli and bombs 80 m high, and produced minor ash emissions. Explosions at two N2 vents (Area N) averaged 3-8 events per hour and ejected material less than 80 m high. Explosions from the S1 and S2 vents in Area C-S were sporadic and occurred at a rate of 4-8 per hour; coarse material was ejected 150 m high. Gas emissions rose from the C vent.

A short explosive event at the N2 vents began at 1617 on 6 October. Notably, a large explosion ejected tephra radially beyond the crater terrace as far as the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, and incandescent material rolled down to the coast. An ash cloud was produced, though it quickly dissipated. A small lava overflow from the vents followed but it did not travel past the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that 52 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim during 4-11 October. Large volcanic bombs were ejected as far as 1.1 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)