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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 18 January-24 January 2023
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Dieng Volcanic Complex Central Java New
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 New
Marapi Central Sumatra New
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) New
Ahyi Mariana Islands (USA) 2022 Nov 18 ± 1 days Continuing
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Cotopaxi Ecuador 2022 Oct 21 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2022 Nov 27 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Halmahera 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Krakatau Sunda Strait 2021 May 25 Continuing
Lascar Northern Chile 2022 Dec 10 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 Continuing
Pavlof Alaska Peninsula, Alaska Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Villarrica Central Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
Whakaari/White Island North Island (New Zealand) Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 18,587 individual reports over 1,151 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 329 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Lewotolok Pinatubo St. Helens
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Aira Cumbal Inielika Llaima Poas Sulu Range
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sumbing
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lonquimay Purace Sundoro
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Machin Rabaul Suwanosejima
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Makushin Raikoke Taal
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Maly Semyachik Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Anatahan Ebeko Kadovar Manam Raoul Island Takawangha
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kaitoku Seamount Manda Hararo Rasshua Talang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kama'ehuakanaloa Marapi Raung Tambora
Antuco Egon Kambalny Maroa Redoubt Tanaga
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Martin Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Masaya Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Mauna Loa Rinjani Tara, Batu
Asosan Etna Karthala Mayon Ritter Island Ta'u
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky McDonald Islands Rotorua Taupo
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruang Telica
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katla Merapi Ruapehu Tenerife
Awu Fernandina Katmai Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Axial Seamount Fogo Kavachi Misti, El Sabancaya Three Sisters
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelimutu Miyakejima Sakar Tinakula
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelud Momotombo Salak Tofua
Bagana Fourpeaked Kerinci Monowai San Cristobal Tokachidake
Balbi Fuego Ketoi Montagu Island San Miguel Tolbachik
Bamus Fujisan Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Toliman
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangay Tongariro
Bardarbunga Galeras Kie Besi Myojinsho Sangeang Api Trident
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Nabro Santa Ana Tungurahua
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Turrialba
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bogoslof Gareloi Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Brava Gaua Kizimen Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Saunders Ulawun
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group Novarupta Savo Unnamed
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semeru Unnamed
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nyamulagira Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Sheveluch Vulcano
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Shishaldin West Mata
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okmok Simbo Westdahl
Chaiten Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chiginagak Hekla Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Sinarka Witori
Chikurachki Helgrindur La Palma Osorno Siple Wolf
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamington Pacaya Sirung Yakedake
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Pagan Slamet Yasur
Chirinkotan Home Reef Langila Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirpoi Hood Lanin Paluweh Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Ciremai Huaynaputina Lascar Panarea Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Late Papandayan Sotara Zhupanovsky
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lateiki Parker Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Concepcion Ibu Leroboleng Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Copahue Ijen Lewotobi Peuet Sague Spurr
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Dieng Volcanic Complex
PVMBG reported that white gas plumes of varying densities rose as high as 80 m above the summit of the Dieng Volcanic Complex during 18-24 January. Carbon dioxide emission averages decreased from an average of 3,300 parts per million during 18-19 January to an average of 1,900 parts per million during 22-23 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from Sileri Crater and 500 m away from the SE, S, and SW sectors of Timbang Crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava continued to erupt in the E portion of Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater floor during 17-24 January. Activity was concentrated in a large, perched lava lake, covering about 10 hectares in the E half of the crater by 17 January, and in a smaller lake to the W, in the basin of the 2021-2022 lava lake. One dominant lava fountain, 6-7 m high, was active in the E lake. Small daily overflows occurred along the margins of the E lake. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Marapi continued during 17-24 January. White-and-gray emissions rose as high as 500 m and drifted in various directions during 17-21 January; white steam plumes were visible on the other days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi’s Mount Young was ongoing during 17-24 January. Seismicity was elevated with daily small local earthquakes and occasional weak tremor. Minor steam emissions were visible in webcam images during 17-19 January; no activity was identified in cloudy satellite views during the rest of the week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ahyi
Unrest at Ahyi Seamount was occasionally detected during 17-24 January. Pressure sensors on Wake Island, 2,270 km E of Ahyi Seamount, detected one small signal during 22-23 January. No activity was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 14-23 January. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. An explosion at 1215 on 18 January produced an ash plume that rose 1.4 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 1.1 km. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 1,400 tons per day. An explosion at 0659 on 19 January generated an ash plume that rose 1.3 km and ejected blocks 600-900 m and an explosion at 0307 on 21 January generated an ash plume that rose 1.6 km and ejected blocks as far as 1.1 km. Occasional very small eruptive events were recorded during 21-22 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Cotopaxi
IG reported that the eruption at Cotopaxi continued during 18-24 January, characterized by daily emissions of steam, gas, and ash. The plumes were visible in webcam images and reported by the Washington VAAC, though sometimes weather conditions prevented observations. They rose as high as 2 km and drifted in various directions and caused ashfall in Chillos (33 km SW), Langualó, San Isidro Alto (20 km SW), and San Agustín del Callo (18 km WSW) during 17-18 January and in San Isidro Alto, Chillos and Langualó Chico during 18-19 January. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 12-19 January. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions on 13 January generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 13 and 16 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that the vents at the NE base of Etna’s SE Crater, in the Valle del Leone at about 2,800 m elevation, continued to feed lava flows during 16-22 January, though the rate notably fluctuated. Lava effusion progressively decreased during 16-17 January and had possibly ceased by the late afternoon of 17 January. Effusion restarted in the early hours of 18 January, generating two lava flows. One of the flows traveled NE along the W edge of the lava field, and the other traveled E onto the steep W wall of Valle del Bove, reaching the base of the wall on 20 January. The effusion rate decreased on 21 January and the again increased during the evening. Late on 22 January a new lava flow descended the Valle del Bove, almost reaching the base of the W wall at around 2,200 m elevation.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slightly elevated surface temperatures at Great Sitkin were identified in satellite images on 18 January, suggesting continuing lava effusion at a low rate primarily to the S and E. A few small earthquakes were detected on most days by the local seismic network. No activity was observed in mostly cloudy satellite and web camera images during 19-24 January. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Ibu continued during 17-24 January. Daily white-and-gray plumes of variable densities rose 200-1,000 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Anak Krakatau intensified at the end of the week during 17-23 January. White steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 200 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and S. Strombolian activity was visible in webcam images at 0041, 0043, and 0450 on 23 January. At 0607 and 0701 dense gray ash plumes rose 300 m above summit and drifted E. At 0758, 0759, 0808, and 0928 dense gray-to-black ash plumes rose 200-500 m and drifted SE. Webcam photos showed progressively intensifying Strombolian activity at 1919, 1958, and 2113 on 24 January. A dense gray ash plume rose 300 m and drifted E at 1957. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lascar
SERNAGEOMIN reported that after the 19 December 2022 eruption at Láscar, activity levels had returned to baseline. During 1-15 January sulfur dioxide emissions detected by a Differential Absorption Optical Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument located 6 km ESE of the crater measured an average value of around 483 tonnes per day, with a maximum value of 881 tonnes per day on 13 January. These values were at normal levels. Occasional low-level thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images and corresponded to passive degassing from the vents in the summit crater. The maximum height of white gas plumes was 1.4 km above the crater rim, recorded on 11 January. On 19 January the Alert Level was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay at least 700 m away from the crater. ONEMI reported that a “Preventive Early Warning” was declared for San Pedro de Atacama (70 km NW).
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok was ongoing during 17-24 January. Nighttime webcam images captured almost daily showed incandescent material being ejected above the summit crater. White steam-and-gas plumes were visible on most days rising as high has 250 m above the summit. Emissions during 18-20 January were white-and-gray and rose as high as 400 m and drifted NE and E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 12-19 January and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced three lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.2 km down the SW flank (upstream in the Kali Bebeng drainage). Avalanche sounds were heard on six occasions. No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in webcam images. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported that at 0710 on 23 January an ash cloud rose from Nevado del Ruiz and drifted NW, causing ashfall in the municipality of Manizales (27 km NW). The ash emission occurred simultaneously with a seismic signal that indicated moving fluids within the volcano’s conduit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof has ended. No explosions had been detected since 11 December and seismicity had decreased to background levels. Weakly elevated surface temperatures and minor steaming from the recently active vent continue to be observed intermittently in satellite and webcam images, consistent with the cooling of previously erupted lava. On 19 January AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal (the lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that there were 94-206 steam-and-gas emissions, sometimes containing ash, rising from Popocatépetl each day during 17-24 January. The plumes drifted N, NE, and N. Minor ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Domingo Arenas, San Nicolas de los Ranchos, Santiago Xalizintla, in the town of San Mateo Ozolco in Calpan, state of Puebla and in the municipalities of Tlaxcala and Papalotla, state of Tlaxcala on 17 January. On 21 January an ash plume rose as high as 3 km and drifted NNE and one minor explosion was detected. Four explosions were recorded during 21-22 January and six were recorded during 23-24 January. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Reventador
IG described the ongoing eruption at Reventador as moderate during 17-24 January. Daily seismicity was characterized by explosions, long-period earthquakes, periods of harmonic tremor, and signals that indicated emissions. The daily count of explosions ranged from 22-96; seismic data transmission was interrupted during 22-23 January. Although weather clouds often prevented observations of the summit, daily gas, steam, and ash plumes were observed in IG webcam images and described in Washington VAAC volcanic activity notifications almost daily. The plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the volcano and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was visible nightly and incandescent blocks were ejected onto the flanks sometimes in all directions; incandescent blocks were also visible rolling as far as 800 m down the flanks. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Sangay
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 17-24 January, which included daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, and gas, steam, and ash emissions. The daily count of explosions ranged from 53-122, though seismic data transmission was sometimes interrupted. Almost daily gas, steam, and ash plumes were either observed in IG webcam images or described in Washington VAAC volcanic activity notifications; weather clouds often prevented observations of the summit. The plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the volcano and drifted in multiple directions. Multiple thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images on most days. Crater incandescence from the crater and from material on the SE flank was visible at night during 21-22 January. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 17-24 January. Daily dense white-and-gray ash plumes generally rose 500-800 m above the summit and drifted N, NE, SE, and S. Ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted SE at 0628 on 19 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit, and 500 m from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 12-19 January was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Explosions on 19 January produced ash plumes that were identified in satellite images rising as high as 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W at 1240 local time. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). In a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) posted at 1635 local time KVERT noted that no additional plumes were identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 16-23 January. No explosions were recorded, though eruption plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 300 m from the vent. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). JMA noted that the number of explosions began decreasing in mid-October 2022 and the last explosion was recorded on 16 November. Additionally, plume heights had occasionally risen higher than 2 km above the crater rim during October-November 2022, but starting in December the heights had generally been at or below 1 km. Other data had also indicated low levels of activity; the probability of material being ejected more than 1 km away from the crater had decreased. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a 5-level scale) on 24 January, and residents were warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Villarrica
SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption at Villarrica was ongoing during 17-24 January. Daily minor Strombolian explosions from a vent on the crater floor ejected incandescent material that generally rose as high as 100 m above the crater rim and fell back down in and around the crater. On 19 January POVI noted that lava was ejected as high as 140 m above the crater rim and onto the W and SW flanks. Explosion noises were heard on 19 and 22 January in areas within a radius of 10 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)
Report for Whakaari/White Island
On 24 January GeoNet reported continuing unrest at Whakaari/White Island characterized by minor-to-moderate gas-and-steam emissions and low levels of gas. The activity was confirmed during an overflight on 16 January. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low, averaging around 33 tonnes per day, and carbon dioxide emissions were moderate, averaging around 705 tonnes per day; the gas levels had declined compared to the 6 December 2022 measurements. No notable changes to the lake were visible aside from minor fluctuations of the lake level. No signs of ash emissions or other eruptive activity were observed. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5).
Source: GeoNet