Activity for the week of 4 July-10 July 2018
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 4 July-10 July 2018
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Karangetang||Siau Island (Indonesia)||New|
|Saunders||South Sandwich Islands (UK)||New|
|Sierra Negra||Isla Isabela (Ecuador)||New|
|Cleveland||Chuginadak Island (USA)||Ongoing|
|Ebeko||Paramushir Island (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Agung | Bali (Indonesia) | 8.343°S, 115.508°E | Elevation 2997 m
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Agung continued during 4-10 July. Sulfur dioxide flux was 1,400-2,400 tons/day on 3 July and 400-1,500 tons/day on 4 July. Satellite data acquired on 4 July indicated continuing lava effusion in the crater, with 4-5 million cubic meters effused in the past week. At 1220 an ash plume rose 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted W. An event was detected at 2216, though an ash plume was not visible possibly due to poor viewing conditions. At 0047 on 5 July an ash plume rose at least 1 km and drifted W, and an event at 1633 produced an ash plume that rose 2.8 km and drifted E and W. A small event was detected on 6 July. According to BNPB a third Strombolian event occurred at 0522 on 8 July, generating an ash plume that rose 2 km. They noted that 4,415 evacuees were housed in 54 evacuation centers. An ash plume rose from the crater at 1120 on 9 July and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius.
Ambae | Vanuatu | 15.389°S, 167.835°E | Elevation 1496 m
The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department reported that the recent eruption at Ambae’s Lake Voui was characterized by three phases of activity: Phase 1, September to late November 2017; Phase 2, late December 2017 to early February 2018; and Phase 3, February to April 2018. A fourth phase, which began on 20 June, consists of gas-and-steam emissions sometimes with ash; an ash plume on 1 July caused ashfall on the NW and W parts of the island and also on the NE part of Santo Island. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5), and the report reminded residents to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater.
Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.488°N, 127.63°E | Elevation 1325 m
Based on satellite images and PVMBG (a ground observer) notices, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 July an ash plume from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) | 2.781°N, 125.407°E | Elevation 1797 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 July a diffuse ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Krakatau | Indonesia | 6.102°S, 105.423°E | Elevation 813 m
PVMBG reported that during 4-5 July there were four ash-producing events at Anak Krakatau, each lasting between 30 and 41 seconds. Inclement weather conditions prevented an estimation of the ash-plume height from the event at 0522 on 4 July; ash plumes from events at 1409, 1425, and 1651 on 5 July rose 300-500 m above the crater rim and drifted N and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.
Saunders | South Sandwich Islands (UK) | 57.8°S, 26.483°W | Elevation 843 m
Satellite data acquired during 1 January-9 July periodically (a few times a month) showed volcanic plumes originating from Michael on Saunders Island. A thermal anomaly was last detected on 3 April 2018.
Sierra Negra | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) | 0.83°S, 91.17°W | Elevation 1124 m
IG reported that a new magmatic intrusion at Sierra Negra was heralded by a M 5.2 earthquake recorded at 1830 on 4 July, and followed by 68 events between M 1.1 and 3.9. Seismic tremor began to be recorded at 1700 on 7 July by a station on the NE edge of the caldera. At the same time satellite data showed an increase in the intensity of the thermal anomaly on NW flank (it had decreased the previous day). Parque Nacional Galápagos staff confirmed strong incandescence in an area near the beach. A weak plume of water vapor and ash rose as high as 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. Tremor continued to be registered on 8 July, though the amplitude gradually decreased. Vapor-and-ash plumes reported by the Washington VAAC rose about 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, and the thermal anomaly remained intense. Gas clouds drifted 115 km W.
The current eruption at Sierra Negra began on 26 June and, according to news articles, prompted tourist restrictions and the evacuation of 50 residents.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that there were two events and three explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 2-9 July, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 1.1 km. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) | 52.825°N, 169.944°W | Elevation 1730 m
AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 4-10 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Meteorological cloud cover often prevented views of the crater. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 7 and 9-10 July; a small steam cloud was visible on 7 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) | 50.686°N, 156.014°E | Elevation 1103 m
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 30 June-1 July that sent ash plumes as high as 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. Satellite data showed ash plumes drifting 57 km SE on 1 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported relatively quiet conditions at Fuego during 4-9 July characterized mainly by gas emissions and block avalanches on the flanks. During 7-8 July there was about one explosion detected every two hours, producing diffuse ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Cenizas (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, while lahars were present in the El Jute (SE), Las Lajas, Cenizas, Taniluyá (SW), Seca, Mineral, and Pantaleón (W) drainages. Seismicity increased on 10 July. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km and drifted 12 km SE, causing ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimaché (8 km SW). According to CONRED, as of 4 July, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 332 remained missing.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 4-10 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline at multiple ocean entries. Fissure 22 produced spattering 50-80 m above its spatter cone and fed short lava flows that traveled NE on 4 July; weak spattering was visible form the cone the rest of the week.
Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred almost daily, producing gas-and-ash-poor plumes.
Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued; lava fountains rarely rose higher than the 55-m-high spatter cone. Pele's hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater. Occasional overflows sent small flows down the sides of the channel that did not extend beyond areas previously covered in lava in the upper part of the channel; overflows further down traveled beyond the flow-field boundary. Small brush fires were ignited from some of the overflows. A thermal map from 6 July showed that lava was not entering the ocean from the main channel and that the open channel ended about 2 km inland. Lava was flowing into the ocean at the N part of the broad flow front. Observations on 9 July indicated that a blockage had formed upstream of Kapoho Crater, and by 10 July a small lobe was moving around the W side of the crater.
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.382°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2569 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-10 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. White gas plumes drifted SW. A lava flow originating from Mackenney Crater traveled 500 m down the N flank during 7-8 July, reaching the volcano’s base.
Sabancaya | Peru | 15.787°S, 71.857°W | Elevation 5960 m
Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 22 per day during 2-8 July. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S, SE, and E. The MIROVA system detected nine thermal anomalies, and on 3 July the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 4,715 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.757°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3745 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-10 July explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted SW and W. Local ashfall was reported. Avalanches of material descended the SE and W flanks of the lava dome.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 4-5 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambang||Gaua||Maly Semyachik||Sarychev Peak|
|Anatahan||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Apoyeque||Guagua Pichincha||Maroa||Seulawah Agam|
|Axial Seamount||Hokkaido-Komagatake||Metis Shoal||Slamet|
|Azul, Cerro||Home Reef||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Balbi||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufriere Hills|
|Bamus||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||Soufriere St. Vincent|
|Banda Api||Ibu||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Barren Island||Iliamna||Myojinsho||St. Helens|
|Bezymianny||Inielika||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Callaqui||Kadovar||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia||Kanaga||Nyiragongo||Talang|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Kavachi||Palena Volcanic Group||Tenerife|
|Concepcion||Kick 'em Jenny||Peuet Sague||Tolbachik|
|Descabezado Grande||Kolokol Group||Rabaul||Ulawun|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Korovin||Ranakah||Unknown Source|
|Epi||Kverkfjoll||Rincon de la Vieja||Witori|
|Erta Ale||Lamongan||Ritter Island||Yasur|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lanin||Ruang||Zavodovski|
|Fernandina||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotolo||Salak|
|Fourpeaked||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)
ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)
OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)