Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New Activity Highlights




















 Activity for the week of 13 June-19 June 2018


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Fernandina Ecuador New
Fuego Guatemala New
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) New
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) New

Agung Bali (Indonesia) Ongoing
Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Langila New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Yasur Vanuatu Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Volcano index photo  Fernandina  | Ecuador  | 0.37°S, 91.55°W  | Elevation 1476 m

IG reported that a seismic swarm at Fernandina began at 0837 on 16 June. Nine earthquakes stronger than M 2.5 were detected with the largest event, a M 4.1, located NE of the island at a depth of 4 km. An eruption that began between 1100 and 1115 was confirmed by guides on a passing boat passing, and by thermal anomalies identified in satellite images. The eruption occurred from a radial fissure on the NNE flank, producing gas plumes with low ash content that rose 2-3 km and drifted more than 250 km WNW. Lava flows reached the sea within a few hours. After two days of intense eruptive activity, tremor levels decreased significantly, thermal anomalies decreased (though continued to remain intense), and a significant drop in sulfur dioxide emissions was recorded.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

During 13-19 June INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that strong lahars at Fuego were often hot, steaming, and had a sulfur odor, and were generated from heavy rains and the recent accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 3 June events. Lahars descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Mineral, Santa Teresa (W), El Gobernador, and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. They were 20-45 m wide, as deep as 3 m, and often carried blocks up to 3 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. On 14 June lahars disrupted communication in the communities of Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales, and Sangré de Cristo (8 km WSW), all of Yepocapa (8 km N), and Chimaltenango (21 km NNE), requiring assistance from the Army. Water levels in the Pantaleón River began to rapidly rise in the afternoon of 17 June.

During 16-19 June as many as seven explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, and S. Some explosions were heard in areas within a 10-km radius. Avalanches of material descended the Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages during 17-18 June, producing ash plumes, and ashfall in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde. According to CONRED, as of 19 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows remained at 110, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 people had been evacuated.

Sources: Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Great Sitkin  | Andreanof Islands (USA)  | 52.076°N, 176.13°W  | Elevation 1740 m

AVO reported that satellite images captured after the short-lived steam explosion at Great Sitkin on 10 June indicated minor changes in the summit crater, characterized by possible new fumaroles in the N part of the main crater and slightly more vigorous steaming at pre-existing fumaroles. Seismicity declined to background levels during 15-16 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Ibu  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.488°N, 127.63°E  | Elevation 1325 m

PVMBG reported that during 14-19 June white-to-gray plumes rose 200-600 m above Ibu’s crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Agung  | Bali (Indonesia)  | 8.343°S, 115.508°E  | Elevation 2997 m

PVMBG reported that at 1105 on 13 June an event at Agung produced a dense ash plume that rose around 2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW and W. Based on analysis of the seismic data, the event lasted two minutes and 12 seconds. Another event was detected at 2115 on 15 June, though foggy conditions prevented estimations of the ash plume height; ash fell in areas W, including in Puregai (7 km W). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the 4-km-radius exclusion zone was unchanged.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that there were eight events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 11-15 June, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim. An explosive event at 0719 on 16 June 2018 generated an ash plume that rose 4.7 km (the first time that a plume rose over 4 km since 2 May 2017) and ejecting tephra as far as 1.1 km. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the SW flank. The last pyroclastic flow originated at the Showa Crater on 1 April 2018. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that low-level unrest at Cleveland continued during 13-19 June. Elevated surface temperatures were evident in satellite data on days when the area was cloud-free. Nothing unusual was observed in seismic or pressure sensor data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on PVMBG observations and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-17 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was last identified in satellite images on 20 May. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 15 June.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 13-19 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted, and spattering was visible at Fissure 6 on 16 June. Hawai‘i County Civil Defense reported that by 17 June a total of 533 homes had been destroyed due to lava flows.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Steam plumes rose from areas in the crater as well as from circumferential cracks adjacent to the crater. Summit explosions occurred daily, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. On 18 June residents reported feeling a large earthquake at 0613 and hearing roaring. The event was followed by an ash plume rising to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 was stable; lava fountains rose as high 60 m from a 52-m-high spatter cone. Pele's hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the fast-moving lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater, and into the ocean. Occasional overflows sent small flows down the sides of the channel. Lava entering the ocean built a lava delta that by 16 June was just over 130 hectares in area. A plume of laze rose from the entry points. An area of thermal upwelling in the ocean out from the visible lava-delta front was visible, suggesting lava flowing on the ocean floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Langila  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.525°S, 148.42°E  | Elevation 1330 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 June an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 13 and 16-18 June Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 50 m above the crater rim. An ash plume rose 3.5 km above the summit and drifted 10 km N and NE.

Sources: Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 19 per day during 11-17 June. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S and SE. The MIROVA system detected two thermal anomalies, and on 14 June the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 4,300 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that on 13 June lahars descended Nimá I drainage on the S flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. The lahars were 15-18 m wide and 1-2 m deep, and carried blocks 1.5 m in diameter and tree branches. CONRED noted that a Yellow Alert Level was declared for Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW) on 16 June due to continuing rains and an increased threat of lahars. Weak explosions during 16-18 June generated diffuse ash plumes that rose 700 m above the complex and drifted SW and W.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

PVMBG reported that at 0700 on 15 June an event at Sinabung produced an ash plume that rose at least 500 m above the crater rim and drifted ESE. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Yasur  | Vanuatu  | 19.532°S, 169.447°E  | Elevation 361 m

Based on webcam images, satellite data, and local visual observations the Wellington VAAC reported that during 14-15 and 17-18 June intermittent, low-level ash plumes from Yasur rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.2 km (3,000-4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and N.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks



The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)