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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New Activity / Highlights


















 Activity for the week of 11 September-17 September 2019

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Alaid Kuril Islands (Russia) New
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border New
Nevados de Chillan Chile New
Villarrica Chile New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Krakatau Indonesia Ongoing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Sangeang Api Indonesia Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Tangkubanparahu Western Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Alaid  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 50.861°N, 155.565°E  | Elevation 2285 m

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 September an ash plume from Alaid identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that a long-period (LP) earthquake at Copahue recorded at 1657 on 11 September correlated with an infrasound signal from an explosion; a gas-and-ash emission rose to low heights. A larger explosion, recorded at 2245 along with an LP earthquake, produced a plume that rose 250 m above the crater rim. Incandescent deposits around the vent were visible at night, and a 3-km-long ash deposit, covering an area of 3.4 square kilometers, was visible on the ESE flank. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (second lowest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 500 m of the crater. ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobío.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Nevados de Chillan  | Chile  | 36.868°S, 71.378°W  | Elevation 3180 m

ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 10-17 September white-to-gray gas plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater rose 400-800 m above the rim and drifted NE, E, and SE. Explosions sometimes ejected incandescent material onto the E and SE flanks. A lava flow on the NNE flank was 100 m wide, 5 m thick, and had advanced 600 m by 14 September. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

Video from an 11 September overflight of Villarrica, conducted by the Carabineros Región de La Araucanía, showed an active cone on the crater floor. ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN noted that the activity was consistent with the elevated seismicity detected by the seismic network during the previous few days. Seismicity and explosive activity in the crater both began decreasing on 12 September and continued a downward trend at least through 16 September. Discrete tremor signals disappeared during 15-16 September, with moderate levels of continuous tremor dominating the signal. No explosions were detected. SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and changed the exclusion zone for the public to a radius of 1 km around the crater.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Carabineros de Chile (Región de La Araucanía)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that inflation at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) began to be detected on 9 September and was similar to the deformation recorded just before a notable eruption on 16 June 2018. An eruption recorded at 0746 on 16 September produced an ash plume that rose 2.8 km above the crater rim and drifted SW. A series of eruptive events were recorded during 0830-1110. Deformation ceased after the events. An explosion at 0927 on 17 September generated an ash plume that rose 1 km and ejected blocks as far as 1.1 km. Two eruptive events later than day produced ash plumes that rose 1.6 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that during 10-13 September ash plumes rose 1.6 km above Asosan’s summit crater rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,600 tons per day on 11 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-17 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NNE, and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 7-13 September that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and N. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 6 September. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 8 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

INGV reported that Strombolian activity at Etna’s Northeast Crater (NEC) likely began on 8 September. Continuous Strombolian activity recorded between 2000 on 9 September and 0700 on 10 September produced diffuse ash emissions which quickly dissipated. The most intense part of the eruptive period occurred during 2000-2200. Minor ashfall was reported in Piedimonte Etneo, Giarre-Riposto, and Rifugio Citelli. Incandescence from the activity had significantly subsided by 0300 on 10 September, coincident with the ejection of lava fragments outside of the crater. Dilute ash puffs were continuously observed at dawn the next day. Strombolian activity ceased around 0540 and then resumed around 0800. Weather conditions hindered observations at times on 11 September but clear observations after 2000 allowed for the confirmation of continuing explosive activity at varying intensity at NEC.

Ash emission from Voragine Crater began during the morning of 12 September and gradually increased in frequency. Activity further intensified at 1200 as Strombolian activity commenced and tephra ejected out of the crater was deposited at the base of Bocca Nuova Crater. Strong Strombolian explosions were felt in Zafferana Etnea, Aci S. Antonio, Pedara, and neighboring areas.

Webcam and field observations on 13 September confirmed continuing activity at NEC and Voragine craters. Diffuse ash plumes rose from NEC and dispersed near the summit area. Strombolian activity at Voragine Crater ejected coarse tephra as high as 20 m above the crater rim and produced diffuse ash emissions. Impact craters from the ejected tephra were distributed mostly in the W part of the area between Bocca Nuova and Voragine craters down to 3,000 m elevation. Activity continued on 14 September. During an overflight on 15 September observers noted that a scoria cone had formed in Voragine Crater, and diffuse ash emissions continued to rise from NEC.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

PVMBG reported that during 9-15 September lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S) and Dua Crater (N), traveling as far as 1.5 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW flank. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 100 m above the summit. According to the Darwin VAAC an ash plume rose almost 650 m above the summit and drifted E on 11 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images on 10 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 813 m

PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded five eruptive events during 9-15 September. A webcam at the summit recorded diffuse white plumes rising 150 m from the bottom of the crater, and dense gray-and-white ash plumes rising 300 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

PVMBG reported that during 9-15 September the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 461,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images on 8 August. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 100 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

A special report from INSIVUMEH noted that seismic activity at Pacaya had increased on 8 September, with RSAM values reaching 7,000 units by 13 September, coincident with increased explosive activity at Mackenney Crater. Explosions from a growing cone in the crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the cone. Lava effusion increased; lava flows advancing on the N and NW flank towards Cerro Chino were about 500 m long. Avalanches of blocks up to 1 m in diameter were produced by the flow front. Similar activity was observed during 15-16 September.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sangeang Api  | Indonesia  | 8.2°S, 119.07°E  | Elevation 1912 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 September a diffuse ash plume from Sangeang Api was identified in satellite images rising to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 6-9 and 12 September. Resuspended ash formed plumes that drifted 250 km ESE during 11-12 September. Satellite and webcam data recorded ash emissions and a gas-and-steam plume with some ash drifting 50 km ESE on 12 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

Low-level lava fountaining and minor explosive activity within Shishaldin’s summit crater was last observed on 17 August and likely continued during 11-17 September; continuous tremor was recorded by the seismic network and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. The webcam possibly recorded a steam emission on 16 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Tangkubanparahu  | Western Java (Indonesia)  | 6.77°S, 107.6°E  | Elevation 2084 m

PVMBG reported that phreatic events, accompanied by roaring, continued at Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater during 9-15 September, though no larger eruptions were recorded. Ash-and-steam emissions rose as high as 20 m above the vent and steam plumes rose as high as 200 m. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

During 10-15 September the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 4,093, with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous, averaging 572 events per day, and all having magnitudes under M 2.5. Hybrid events averaged 299 events per day. Continuous emissions of blueish gas and water vapor were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 1.5 km above the summit. Two thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. An explosion at 0725 on 12 September produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 1.5 km and affected several districts S and SE in the Moquegua region. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)