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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail.

This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives on various volcanoes are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 7 April-13 April 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Iceland New
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) New
Soufriere St. Vincent St. Vincent 2020 Dec 27 New
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2020 Dec 20 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Raung Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2021 Jan 21 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Sinabung Indonesia 2020 Aug 8 Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,566 individual reports over 1,058 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 310 different volcanoes.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague Spurr
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo St. Helens
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Sulu Range
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ambae Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambrym Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suwanosejima
Anatahan Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Taal
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Antuco Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Takawangha
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Talang
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Tambora
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tanaga
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asosan Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Awu Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Telica
Axial Seamount Fogo Katmai Merapi Ruang Tenerife
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kavachi Midagahara Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Bagana Fourpeaked Kelut Miyakejima Sabancaya Tinakula
Balbi Fuego Kerinci Momotombo Sakar Tofua
Bamus Fujisan Ketoi Monowai Salak Tokachidake
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bardarbunga Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Toliman
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Mutnovsky San Vicente Tongariro
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Myojinsho Sangay Tungurahua
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nabro Sangeang Api Turrialba
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Ubinas
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ulawun
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarigan Unnamed
Bulusan Great Sitkin Korovin Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nisyros Saunders Veniaminof
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Villarrica
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch Whakaari/White Island
Cereme Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Wolf
Chaiten Hekla Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Yasur
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Oraefajokull Sinarka Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Osorno Siple Zavodovski
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pacaya Sirung Zhupanovsky
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Pagan Slamet Zubair Group
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Paluweh Soputan
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Panarea Sorikmarapi
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Papandayan Sotara
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Parker Soufriere Hills
Concepcion Ibu Lewotolok Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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Download Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that the explosive eruption that began at Karymsky on 3 April continued through 11 April. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images during 2-6 April; weather conditions obscured views on other days. The 3 April explosion generated an ash plume that rose to 8.5 km (27,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 255 km NE. At 1745 on 11 April explosions produced ash plumes that rose to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted at least 65 km SE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) on 3 April.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Krysuvik-Trolladyngja
IMO reported that the fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 7-13 April. Lava from the third fissure flowed S into Geldingadalur and NE towards the Meradalir valley site. Flows from the three fissures connected into one flow field on 7 April. Another new fissure opened at around 0300 on 10 April, halfway between two existing fissures, and all four fissures were simultaneously active. Lava flowed towards Geldingadalur. Gas-rich emission plumes were visible in webcam images rising 1.1-1.3 km (3,600-4,300 ft) a.s.l. At least two new vents opened on 13 April based on webcam views. On 14 April IMO noted that lava was flowing from at least eight vents and unverified reports form the morning suggested two additional vents had opened. Sulfur dioxide gas flux was 29 kilograms per second, comparable to measurements collected during the previous few weeks.

IMO warned visitors that new fissures could open without adequate visible warning, especially in an area just S of Keilir, by Litla-Hrút, where seismicity was concentrated. They also warned of increased gas emissions hazards. The Aviation Color Code remained Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater continued during 7-13 April. Explosions during 6-7 April produced ash plumes that rose 1 km above the summit and drifted 10 km W and SW. Ballistics were ejected 50-150 m above the summit. Explosions during 8-9 and 11-12 April produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km and drifted as far as 10 km NE, W, and SW.

The lava flow on the W and SW flanks was 3.7 km long and continued to be fed. Incandescent lava blocks were spalled from the flow front and vegetation was set on fire. The lava advanced W onto the La Breña farm and SW towards El Patrocinio and El Rodeo, near the Campo Alegre farm. On 12 April the flows burned La Breña coffee and avocado plantations. By 13 April the lava flows were 3.8 km long, and within 370 m of houses in El Patrocinio. Another flow front was 250 m E of El Rodeo, and obstructed the road that connects El Rodeo, El Caracol, and Los Pocitos.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED)
Report for Piton de la Fournaise
OVPF reported that a seismic crisis at Piton de la Fournaise began at 1457 on 9 April and was accompanied by rapid deformation beneath the S flank. Seismicity indicated that a fissure opened at 1900 but could not be visually confirmed due to weather conditions. The Alert Level was raised to 2-2. During an overflight at 0840 on 10 April scientists observed a NNW-oriented fissure, 700 m S of Château Fort. Activity was focused at two vents, each producing lava fountains that were no higher than 30 m tall, though fountains also rose from other parts of the fissure. Slow-moving ‘a’a lava flowed SE and then curved E and advanced 1.6 km to 1,800 elevation. The N end of the fissure was no longer active. Two cones had formed over the main vents and were growing larger; by 11 April the more northern vent was the larger of the two. Fountains rose 30-60 m and the lava flow had advanced to 1,750 m elevation. By 1900 on 11 April the lava flow was 3.2 km long and had reached 1,690 m elevation. Lava fountaining continued at the two vents during 12-13 April, rising 20-60 m. The lava flow continued to advance; by 13 April the flow was about 3.6 km long and had reached 1,500-1,550 m elevation.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that low-level ash emissions from Semisopochnoi were visible in satellite images on 12 April along with a steam plume drifting E beyond the island. Additionally, new ash deposits extending SE at least to the coastline were also visible. The event was recorded by the regional infrasound network. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Soufriere St. Vincent
University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the effusive eruption at Soufrière St. Vincent (often simply referred to as “La Soufriere”) became explosive on 9 April after a period of increased seismicity, gas emission, and rapid dome growth. Earthquake swarms were recorded during 22-25 March and 5 April, signifying a change in the eruption pattern. Small earthquakes associated with dome growth were recorded on 7 April. Episodes of tremor indicating movement of magma and fluids close to the surface began at 0300 on 8 April and were again recorded at 0530, 0800, 1015, and 1300, slowly increasing in magnitude. Five long-period earthquakes and two brief swarms of VT events occurred in between the tremor episodes; ash venting occurred with the last episode. Sulfur dioxide emissions were identified in satellite data, and clouds of steam and gas were visible from the Belmont Observatory. Later that evening, incandescent material over the vent area was visible in webcam images, and views from the observatory indicated that the dome had grown significantly. The Alert Level was raised to Red at around 1830, and the Prime Minister issued an evacuation order for the Red Zone at the N part of the island, affecting 16,000-20,000 people.

An explosive eruption began at 0840 on 9 April when an ash plume rose to 8 km (27,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly ENE. Ash fell across the island, affecting communities including Chateaubelair and Petite Bordel, the observatory, Belmont and surrounding areas at the S end of the island, and forcing the closure of the Argyle International Airport (20 km S). NEMO stated that evacuations in the Orange and Red zones were impeded by significant ashfall and poor visibility, but by the evening most residents had been evacuated. A second period of vigorous ash venting began at 1445 and initially rose about 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Lightning was visible in the rising plume. Successive explosions and ash pulses fed the plume for hours and it rose to 16 km (52,000 ft) a.s.l. A third explosive series began at 1835. Ash venting occurred through the night, causing ashfall across St. Vincent and reaching Barbados, about 165 km E, significantly impacting residents on that island.

Periods of banded tremor began at 0330 on 10 April, lasting for periods of 20-30 minutes with 1-3-hour gaps. The tremor episodes were associated with explosive activity and stronger pulses of ash emissions to higher altitudes; ash plumes rose to 10.6-16 km (35,000-52,000 ft) a.s.l. throughout the day. The Washington VAAC stated that ash plumes during 9-10 April had drifted as far as 1,200 km ESE and about 3,000 km ENE. The Grantley Adams International Airport (GAIA) in Barbados also closed.

Ashfall continued to be widespread on 10 April; deposit thickness varied from less than 1 mm in Colonaire (~12.5 km SSE) to 10-15 mm in Rabacca (~7.4 km SSE). Scientists reported darkness at the observatory at 1617; video showed intense and continuous ashfall. Satellite data confirmed that explosions had excavated the 2020-2021 lava dome and parts of the 1979 dome, leaving a large crater.

Overnight during 10-11 April ash again fell island-wide, and also in the Grenadines (to the SSW), Barbados, and Saint Lucia (50 km NNE). Explosions early on 11 April were followed by widespread power and water outages on the island as reported by NEMO, and some houses had collapsed under the significant ashfall. Beginning around midday the periods between episodes of high-amplitude tremor lengthened from 1.5-4 hours to 5-8 hours. The VAAC reported that through the day ash plumes rose 12.2-16 km (40,000-52,000 ft) a.s.l. and continued to drift long distances to the ENE, E, and SE. A large explosion at 0415 on 12 April produced an ash plume that rose to 12.8 km (42,000 ft) a.s.l. Pyroclastic flows descended several valleys on the S and W flanks, reaching the coast at Morne Ronde (4.3 km W), Larikai (3.5 km WNW), and Trois Loupes Bay (3.5 km NW). Damage to vegetation was extensive along the W coast, stretching from Larikai Bay to Turner Bay. The pattern of seismicity again changed; high-amplitude tremor episodes ceased, but two low-amplitude and one high-amplitude episode were recorded during 0600-1700. Explosivity or notable ash venting coincided with the episodes; the spacing between explosive events increased.

A series of Vulcanian explosions began at 0630 on 13 April and lasted about 30 minutes. The VAAC stated that a dense ash plume rose to 11 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE, as well as N and NE. Pyroclastic flows traveled about 6 km WSW, reached the ocean at Wallibou Bay, and extended past the coastline over the sea. Scientists observed the western coastline later in the day and noted that pyroclastic flows had descended all valleys from Larikai (W) to Wallibou, a stretch about 5 km long. Lahar deposits were observed in the Sandy Bay area. The VAAC noted that at 1850 a new ash emission rose to 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and was associated with a thermal anomaly. UWI-SRC stated that a large explosion was recorded around 2300. Pyroclastic flows overnight were channeled to the E into the Rabacca River drainage. The Montserrat Volcano Observatory stated that a sulfur odor and minor ashfall from Soufrière St. Vincent was observed on their island (390 km NNW).

Daily satellite-based measurements of SO2 were notable beginning on 9 April. Though the initial explosion at 0840 showed relatively minor SO2 emissions, stronger, continuous ash and SO2 emissions began later on 9 April (at 1445) and continued into the next day, transitioning into discrete explosive events that continued a least through 14 April. Satellite data showed about 0.4 teragrams (Tg) of SO2 in the plume on 10 April, with some stratospheric injection. Simon Carn noted that this makes the La Soufriere eruption the largest tropical SO2 emission since the 2011 Nabro eruption, and the largest in the Caribbean since satellite measurements began in 1979. The SO2 plume initially fanned out to the NE, E, and SE across the Atlantic Ocean. Measurements during 11-13 April showed similar results of 0.4-0.6 Tg SO2 depending on altitude. The eastern edge of the gas plume reached about 4,700 km to the W coast of Africa by 12 April, and another 2,000 km inland to Mali and Niger on 13 April.
Sources: University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC), National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO), Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Simon Carn, Reuters, UN News Centre, Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), ReliefWeb, Capella Space, Nation News, Caribbean Handbook on Risk Information Management
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 5-9 April. Four explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 600 m away. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW) during 8-9 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that at 0641 on 5 April and explosion at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) produced an ash plume that rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim and ejected material 800-1,000 m away from the crater. Five explosions were recorded during 9-12 April. The highest ash plume rose 2.1 km and bombs were ejected as far as 900 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that during 6-10 April ash plumes from Dukono rose 100-700 m above the summit and drifted E, SE, and S. Weather conditions prevented visual observations during 11-12 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 2-9 April that sent ash plumes to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that during 6-13 April gray-and-white ash plumes from Ibu rose 200-1,000 m above the summit and drifted mainly N, E, and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 31 March-6 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The total depth of the lake measured about 226 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified and expanded toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 tons/day on 1 April. HVO field crews observed weak spattering from two areas at the W vent during 1-2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the Strombolian eruption at Lewotolok continued during 6-13 April. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 750 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. Incandescent material was ejected 300-500 m above the summit on most days and 500 m SE on 8 April. Incandescent material was ejected to the E during 9 and 11-12 April. Rumbling was occasionally audible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both continued to grow during 1-8 April. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1,098,000 cubic meters on 7 April, with a growth rate of about 12,800 cubic meters per day, and continued to shed material down the flank. A total of 13 pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 1.5 km down the SW flank. Incandescent avalanches, recorded 119 times, traveled as far as 1.1 km down the SW flank. The summit lava dome had grown to 75 m tall. Minor ashfall was reported in Ngipiksari (8 km SSW), Klangon (4 km S), and Deles (3 km SE) on 3 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Raung
PVMBG reported that daily gray-and-white ash plumes rose 50-600 m above Raung's summit during 6-13 April and drifted mainly N, E, and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 7-13 April, though weather conditions often prevented visual confirmation. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 500 m during 9 and 11-12 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 5 km in the SSE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 2-9 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Sinabung
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 6-13 April. Weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations of the volcano, though white fumarolic plumes were visible almost daily rising as high as 700 m above the summit and drifting in multiple directions. An eruptive event on 7 April produced a gray ash plume that rose 1 km. Two eruptive events the next day generated ash plumes that rose as high as 700 m. Avalanches traveled as far as 1.5 km E and SE during 8-11 April. Ash plumes rose 500-1,000 m high on 10 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)