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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 23 November-29 November 2022
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ahyi Mariana Islands (USA) New
Cotopaxi Ecuador New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Mauna Loa Hawaiian Islands (USA) New
San Miguel Eastern El Salvador New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Alaid Kuril Islands (Russia) 2022 Sep 10 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Kerinci Central Sumatra 2022 Oct 15 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Pavlof Alaska Peninsula, Alaska 2021 Aug 5 Continuing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica 2021 Jun 28 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Villarrica Central Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu 1774 Jul 2 (in or before) ± 182 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 18,412 individual reports over 1,143 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 328 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Sulu Range
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sumbing
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sundoro
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Takawangha
Anatahan Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Talang
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Raung Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Redoubt Tanaga
Antuco Egon Kambalny Martin Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Masaya Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Mauna Loa Rinjani Tara, Batu
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Mayon Ritter Island Ta'u
Asosan Etna Karthala McDonald Islands Rotorua Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Melimoyu Ruang Telica
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi Merapi Ruapehu Tenerife
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katla Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fernandina Katmai Misti, El Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fogo Kavachi Miyakejima Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelimutu Momotombo Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelud Monowai San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fourpeaked Kerinci Montagu Island San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fuego Ketoi Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fujisan Kharimkotan Mutnovsky Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Myojinsho Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Galeras Kie Besi Nabro Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Negro, Cerro Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nightingale Island Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gareloi Kita-Ioto Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gaua Kizimen Nisyros Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Novarupta Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group NW Rota-1 Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nyamulagira Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Ofu-Olosega Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Okataina Shishaldin West Mata
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Okmok Simbo Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Ontakesan Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Oraefajokull Sinarka Witori
Chiginagak Hekla Kverkfjoll Osorno Siple Wolf
Chikurachki Helgrindur La Palma Pacaya Sirung Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamington Pagan Slamet Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Langila Paluweh Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lanin Panarea Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Lascar Papandayan Sotara Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Parker Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague Spurr
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo St. Helens
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ahyi
Signs of unrest at Ahyi Seamount have been observed in satellite and remote geophysical data, starting in mid-October. Hydroacoustic signals continued to be observed but had declined in the previous few weeks. Discolored water over the seamount was first visible on 18 November and persisted, possibly from either degassing or an eruption. On 29 November the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Cotopaxi
On 22 November IG concluded that the minor ash emissions recorded at Cotopaxi on 21 October were due to magma in the volcano’s conduit, though not from new magma entering the system after the 2015 eruption. An average of one seismic event per day was recorded based on long-term seismic rates. In the months prior to the 21 October event, the rate had gradually increased to 1.5 events per day, though after the ash emission the rate fell back to one event per day. Most of the seismicity was located beneath the summit. Minor deformation was recorded during August-November, but it could not be conclusively linked to the eruptive activity. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased in October and gas-emission analysis indicated a magmatic origin. Nearly continuous emissions of gas-and-steam had been rising from the main crater since 21 October, as high as 2 km above the rim. The heights of emissions averaged 200 m and were as high as 800 m in 2021.

At 1848 on 25 November the seismic network recorded a tremor signal associated with a gas emission that drifted NNW. At approximately 0310 on 26 November a new episode of tremor was associated with a gas-and-ash emissions that lasted for several hours. The plume drifted 85 km NNW, passing over Quito (55 km N), and caused ashfall in El Pedregal (60 km N), Tambillo (32 km NNW), Guamaní (42 km NNW), Amaguaña (33 km NNW), Chillogallo (44 km NNW), Quitumbe (41 km NNW), Solanda (46 km NNW), Lloa (48 km NNW), Conocoto (41 km N), Mercado Mayorista (45 km NNW), Villaflora (47 km NNW), and Rumipamba (55 km N). Moderate levels of seismic tremor were recorded until about 1050. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that at about 1800 on 27 November a vent opened at the NE base of Etna’s SE Crater, at 2,800 m elevation, and produced a lava flow. The flow slowly advanced a few hundred meters towards the Valle del Leone. Tremor levels at the time the vent opened showed no variations from the average trend recorded during the previous week, and no notable changes were identified in deformation data. Effusive activity continued through 30 November, with additional small lava flows emplacing over the first one. For a period of about an hour, beginning at 1700 on 29 November, tremor amplitude increased and then peaked; the amplitude fluctuated between medium and high values for a few hours afterwards. The source of the tremor was in an area between the SE Crater and Bocca Nuova Crater, at elevations of 2,000-2,600 m.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
On 24 November KVERT reported that the Strombolian eruption that had begun at Klyuchevskoy on 16 November was ongoing. Lava fountaining at the summit was visible and a thermal anomaly over the summit was identified in satellite images during 17-20 and 24 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Mauna Loa
An eruption at Mauna Loa began at about 2330 on 27 November in Moku‘aweoweo, the summit caldera, prompting HVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning (the highest level on a four-level scale). A thermal anomaly and a plume of sulfur dioxide gas were identified in satellite images at the onset of the eruption, according to NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS). Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park closed the summit area to visitors. Lava erupted from a fissure in the caldera and by 0127 on 28 November lava had overflowed the caldera walls. During an overflight at about 0630 scientists confirmed that the eruption had moved from the summit to the Northeast Rift Zone, where three fissures opened at a high elevation. The fissures fed several lava flows that traveled N and NE; the flows were active in the “saddle” area between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea and were not threatening any populated areas. Lava fountains along the fissures were as tall as 30-60 m, though most were only a few meters tall. Lava flows from fissures 1 and 2 traveled downslope and stalled about 18 km from the Saddle Road; the two fissures were inactive by 1330. Sulfur dioxide emissions were approximately 250,000 tonnes per day.

Fissure 3, at the lowest elevation of the NE fissures, issued the longest lava flows. Lava flows crossed the Mauna Loa Weather Observatory Road at about 2000 on 28 November; by 0700 on 29 November the flow front was about 10 km from the Saddle Road. Lava fountains at Fissure 3 were 25 m high in the morning on 29 November but had grown to 40-50 m tall in the afternoon. Fissure 4, downslope of Fissure 3, opened at about 1930 and produced lava fountains that rose 5-10 m high. There was no activity in the summit caldera, nor along the Southwest Rift Zone. Gas plumes from the activity drifted N.
Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS)
Report for San Miguel
MARN reported that the eruption at San Miguel continued during 23-28 November. Daily phreatic explosions produced gas, steam, and ash emissions that generally rose around 500 m above the crater rim. There were a total of 188 events recorded by 28 November, with a daily average of 13. The explosions were more energetic mid-week; explosions at 1302 and 1642 on 26 November and 0718 and 0802 on 27 November ejected hot rocks onto the flanks and produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the summit. A cow was killed by hot ballistics during the morning of 27 November, according to a news article. El Director General de Protección Civil issued a Green Alert for the municipalities of Chinameca, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge, and warned the public to stay 3 km away from the volcano. The notice recommended that those living within a 3-6 km radius should identify evacuation routes and to take preparation measures as guided by the Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil.

Sulfur dioxide emissions generally averaged 283 tons per day during 26-27 November, below the baseline of 300 tons per day. Specific measurements during explosive events revealed that the emissions were sometimes as high as 1,200 tons per day. MARN warned the public to stay 2 km away from the volcano, and for those living within a 2-5 km radius to identify evacuation routes and to take preparation measures as guided by the Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil.
Sources: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN), ASAP Televisión, Protección Civil de El Salvador
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) and nighttime crater incandescence during 21-28 November. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 700 tons per day on 21 November. An explosion on 21 November produced an ash plume that rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 500 m from the vent. Small eruptive events were recorded during 25-28 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Alaid
KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code for Alaid to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) on 24 November noting that activity had been gradually decreasing since the last ash plume was recorded on 26 October. The temperature of the thermal anomaly began decreasing on 29 October and reached background levels by 20 November. At 1025 on 26 November (local time) ash plumes from explosions were visible in satellite images drifting 38 km SE at altitudes of 4.5-4.7 km 14,800-15,400 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Explosions continued through the day; by 1521 (local time) ash plumes were rising to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and ash plumes had drifted as far as 220 km SE. Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images on 20 November. Weather clouds prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 17-24 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 23-29 November and the flow field continued to grow. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 27-29 November. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kerinci
PVMBG reported that white steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 150 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted NE during 25-26 November. Gray plumes of variable densities rose 100-500 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and NW. At 0830 on 27 November a gray ash plume rose about 400 m above the summit and drifted E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 23-29 November entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 18-24 November and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 13 lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.6 km down the SW flank (upstream in the Kali Bebeng drainage). No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident. According to the Darwin VAAC an ash plume rose to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW on 25 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Sources: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 23-29 November and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Vent incandescence was visible in webcam images on most days, suggesting ongoing lava effusion. Elevated surface temperatures were occasionally identified in satellite images. Minor ash emissions were observed in webcam images during 26-27 November. A seismic signal at 1748 on 28 November indicated a flowage event. Webcam images from 29 November confirmed that a flowage event had occurred, and a resulting gas cloud possibly containing ash rose as high as 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing eruptive activity at Rincón de la Vieja characterized by occasional small phreatic explosions; five were recorded during 19-25 November. A notable variability in sulfur dioxide emissions was first observed on 18 November and continued through the week, with a peak measurement as high as 1,500 tons per day. A phreatic explosion at 1432 on 25 November produced a steam-rich plume that rose 2 km and drifted SW.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Sangay
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 22-29 November, which included daily explosions, volcanic tremor, and gas-and-steam emissions. The daily count of explosions ranged from 920-1,320, though seismic data transmission was sometimes interrupted. Daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in either or both IG webcam images and satellite images according to the Washington VAAC. Plumes rose as high as 2.1 km above the volcano and drifted in various directions. Sulfur dioxide emissions were measured daily and ranged from 491.2 tons per day to 3,693.5 tons per day. During 22-29 November crater incandescence was visible at night and early mornings. Pyroclastic flows descended the flanks during 24-29 November. Lava flows, incandescent blocks, and incandescent material descended the SE flank during 25-29 November.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 23-29 November. Daily explosions at the summit produced ash plumes that varied in color and density, which generally rose 500-700 m above the summit and drifted in various directions. A dense gray ash plume at 0002 on 23 November rose 700 m and drifted SE and S, at 0507 and 0540 on 24 November white-to-gray and dense gray ash plumes, respectively, rose 500 m and drifted N, at 0702 on 25 November a dense gray ash plume rose 500 m and drifted NE, at 0444 on 26 November an ash plume rose 700 m and drifted S, at 0552 on 27 November a white-to-gray ash plume rose 500 m and drifted S, at 0556 on 28 November a dense gray ash plume rose 500 m and drifted N, that same day at 0611 a dense gray ash plume rose possibly higher than 1 km, and at 0509 on 29 November a white-and-gray ash plume rose 600 m and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit, and 500 m from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semisopochnoi
On 23 November AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code for Semisopochnoi to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) noting that no ash emissions or explosive activity had been detected since 7 November. Seismicity had decreased, though remained at elevated levels. Steam emissions from the active vent in the N crater of Mount Cerberus persisted.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 17-24 November was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Collapses generated hot avalanches and ash plumes that drifted 80 km E during 17-18 and 20 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that during 21-27 November activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosions at three vents in Area N (North Crater area) and two vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area); weather conditions prevented visual confirmation of activity during 21-23 November. Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (Area N) ejected course material (bombs and lapilli) less than 80 m high at a rate of 3-7 explosions per hour. Spattering and occasional low-intensity explosive activity was visible at the N2 vent (Area N). Explosions from at least two vents in S2 (Area C-S) ejected ash and coarse material over 250 m above the vent at a rate of 6 events per hour.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 21-28 November and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 300 m from the vent. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Villarrica
POVI reported minor gas-and-steam emissions at Villarrica on 24 November; one circular emission (“vortex ring”) was also visible. During an overflight on 25 November, SERNAGEOMIN scientists observed the small cone on the crater floor with an incandescent lava lake at its center. The lake temperature was 1,043 degrees Celsius. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned that material could be ejected within 500 m of the crater. ONEMI remained the Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli.
Sources: Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Yasur
On 24 November Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that activity at Yasur continued at a high level of “major unrest,” as defined by the Alert Level 2 status (the middle level on a scale of 0-4). Recent observations confirmed continuing low-to-moderate explosions that ejected bombs within the crater and produced ash, gas, and steam emissions. The public was reminded to not enter the restricted area within 600 m around the cone, defined by Danger Zone A on the hazard map.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)