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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 14 September-20 September 2022
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Alaid Kuril Islands (Russia) New
Home Reef Tonga Ridge New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Taupo North Island (New Zealand) New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Fagradalsfjall Iceland 2022 Aug 3 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Halmahera 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Kadovar Northeast of New Guinea 2018 Jan 5 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Apr 1 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Reykjanes Peninsula Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevados de Chillan Central Chile 2016 Jan 8 Continuing
Pavlof Alaska Peninsula, Alaska 2021 Aug 5 Continuing
Purace Colombia Continuing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica 2021 Jun 28 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Whakaari/White Island North Island (New Zealand) Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 18,169 individual reports over 1,133 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 327 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Sulu Range
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sumbing
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sundoro
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Takawangha
Anatahan Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Talang
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Raung Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Redoubt Tanaga
Antuco Egon Kambalny Martin Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Masaya Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Mauna Loa Rinjani Tara, Batu
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Mayon Ritter Island Ta'u
Asosan Etna Karthala McDonald Islands Rotorua Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Melimoyu Ruang Telica
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi Merapi Ruapehu Tenerife
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katla Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fernandina Katmai Misti, El Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fogo Kavachi Miyakejima Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelimutu Momotombo Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelud Monowai San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fourpeaked Kerinci Montagu Island San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fuego Ketoi Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fujisan Kharimkotan Mutnovsky Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Myojinsho Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galeras Kie Besi Nabro Santa Ana Turrialba
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ubinas
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Negro, Cerro Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nightingale Island Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gareloi Kita-Ioto Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gaua Kizimen Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Novarupta Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group NW Rota-1 Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nyamulagira Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Ofu-Olosega Sheveluch West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chaiten Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla Kverkfjoll Osorno Siple Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur La Palma Pacaya Sirung Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamington Pagan Slamet Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Langila Paluweh Soputan Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lanin Panarea Sorikmarapi Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Lascar Papandayan Sotara Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Parker Soufriere Hills
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague Spurr
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo St. Helens
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Alaid
KVERT reported that an intense thermal anomaly over Alaid identified in satellite images beginning at 1139 on 15 September (local time) likely indicated the onset of a Strombolian eruption. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) the next day. Satellite images acquired at 1108 on 18 September showed a gas-and-steam plume containing ash drifting ESE. Several photographs of the eruption were taken that same day. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS) of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS)
Report for Home Reef
The Tonga Geological Services reported that the new island at Home Reef that emerged from the ocean on 10 September continued to grow through 20 September. The eruption continued at variable intensities, producing daily plumes of gas and steam that rose no higher than 1 km above sea level. The island was surrounded by plumes of discolored water. The island was 170 m in diameter by 16 September and had grown to 182 m N-S and 173 m E-W by 18 September. Steam plumes with some ash content rose 3 km during 19-20 September. Mariners were advised to stay 4 km away from the volcano.
Source: Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga
Report for Piton de la Fournaise
OVPF reported that a seismic crisis at Piton de la Fournaise began at 0623 on 19 September. Volcanic tremor located beneath the SSW part of the caldera began at 0748, likely signifying the arrival of magma at the surface, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation from webcams. Pelotons de Gendarmerie de Haute Montagne (PGHM) teams that were on-site to evacuate people from inside the caldera observed lava fountains 20-30 m high rising from a fissure that had opened E of Piton Kala Pélé. The eruption was confined to the caldera, so the Alert Level was raised to 2-1 (“2” is the highest level of a 3-level scale and “-1” denotes the lowest of three sub-levels). By 20 September lava fountaining had decreased and the focus of the eruption was at the lower part of the fissure. Sulfur dioxide emissions peaked at an estimated 8,000 tons per day at the beginning of the eruption and then decreased to about 2,300 tons per day during 20-21 September.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
Report for Taupo
On 20 September GeoNet raised the Volcanic Alert Level for Taupo to 1 (the second lowest level on a six-level scale) reflecting “minor volcanic unrest” characterized by ongoing seismicity and inflation. Seismicity beneath Lake Taupo began increasing in May. Earthquakes occurred at a rate of about 30 per week but increased to about 40 per week in early September. A M 4.2 earthquake, the largest so far this year, was recorded on 10 September and felt by over 1,000 people. By 20 September over 700 earthquakes had been located with depths less than 30 km, though most ranged 4-13 km. The earthquake locations were in two clusters: a larger cluster beneath the central and E part of the lake, and a smaller cluster to the W centered just offshore from Karangahape. An area of deformation at Horomatangi Reef had been rising at a rate of 60 mm (plus or minus 20 mm) per year since May. The area of uplift corresponded to the main seismic swarm. The data suggested that the seismicity and deformation was caused by the movement of magma and hydrothermal fluids.

GeoNet noted that unrest at calderas was common and may continue for months or years without resulting in an eruption; more significant unrest would be indicated by additional indicators of activity and substantial impacts on the local area. There have been 17 previous episodes of unrest at Taupo over the previous 150 years, some more notable than the current episode, and many others before written records. None resulted in an eruption, with the last eruption occurring around 232 CE. The Volcanic Alert Level change was informed by ongoing analysis of monitoring data, research, and deepening knowledge of past unrest.
Source: GeoNet
Report for Aira
JMA reported that 10 explosions at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 12-19 September. Volcanic plumes produced by the explosions rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and ballistics were ejected as far as 1.3 km from the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 2,400 tons per day on 24 September. Nighttime incandescence at the crater was visible during 2-16 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions generated ash plumes that rose up to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images during 8 and 12-13 September. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 9-10 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fagradalsfjall
IMO stated that the Fagradalsfjall and Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic systems have been designated as two separate systems based on previous scientific research combined with data collected and analyzed from the two recent eruptions (2021 and 2022). On 15 September the Aviation Color Code for Fagradalsfjall was lowered to Green; lava from the fissure that opened in Meradalir stopped erupting on 21 August. Seismicity remained at low levels and no deformation was detected.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin likely continued during 13-20 September, an analysis confirmed by clear satellite images during 13-15 September. Lava flowed outward from the vent area but flows at the margins did not advance. Minor steam emissions were also visible during 13-14 September and elevated surface temperatures were identified during 13-15 and 17-18 September. Weather cloud cover occasionally prevented webcam and satellite views. A data outage affected the local seismic network during 16-20 September, though no significant activity was detected on regional geophysical networks. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Ibu continued during 14-20 September. Gray-and-white ash plumes of variable densities rose as high as 800 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kadovar
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 September multiple, discrete, ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and WNW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 9 and 10-11 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 13-20 September, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Part of the lake’s surface was continuously active. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Krysuvik-Trolladyngja
IMO stated that the Fagradalsfjall and Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic systems have been designated as two separate systems based on previous scientific research combined with data collected and analyzed from the two recent eruptions (2021 and 2022). On 15 September the Aviation Color Code for Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja was changed to Green, reflecting that the activity was at known background levels.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 13-20 September. Daily white emissions rose as high as 300 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. During 16-19 September white-and-gray or white, gray, and black plumes rose as high 1 km and drifted W and NW. Incandescence above the crater rim was visible in some webcam photographs posted during 14-15 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater and 4 km away from the crater on the SE flank.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 9-15 September and seismicity remained at high levels. As many as 13 lava avalanches from the SW lava dome traveled down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank, reaching a maximum distance of 1.8 km. No morphological changes to the SW and central lava domes were evident in photographs. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevados de Chillan
SERNAGEOMIN reported that a long-period earthquake signals were recorded at Nevados de Chillán at 0750 and 1913 on 19 September. Associated emissions at 0750 rose 1.1 km above the summit and drifted NE, and at 1913 rose 1.7 km above the summit and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 13-20 September. Seismic tremor persisted. New lahar and minor ash deposits extending less than 900 m from the vent were visible during 11-13 September. Strong incandescence at the vent and from an area within 200 m downslope was visible in webcam images starting on 14 September, signifying the emplacement of a short lava flow. Elevated surface temperatures over the vent and flow were identified in satellite images through 20 September; lava effusion continued but no active lava flows extended down the flank from the vent. Explosions were recorded during 18-19 September and steam emissions were visible in webcam images during 19-20 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Purace
Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Popayán, Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC), reported that during 13-19 September the number of earthquakes at Puracé was slightly higher compared to previous weeks. A seismic swarm was recorded on 15 September. Events were located about 1.5 km SW of Puracé crater, at depths of 3-4 km, and were as large as M 1.3. A total of 904 earthquakes were recorded during the week; 296 of those were volcano-tectonic events, 538 were long-period events, 54 were low-energy pulses of tremor, 11 were tornillo-type events, and five were hybrid events. Data from the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) geodetic network indicated continuing inflation. White gas plumes were visible in the Anambío, Mina, Lavas Rojas, Cerro Sombrero, and Curiquinga webcams drifting NW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were as high as 2,021 tonnes per day. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing eruptive activity at Rincón de la Vieja characterized by occasional small phreatic explosions. A small explosion at 0147 on 14 September produced a steam-and-gas plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. Low-frequency tremor began at 0900 on 17 September and was possibly associated with small eruptive events, though they were not visually confirmed. A possible emission was recorded at 0219.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 13-20 September. Eruptive events at 0524 on 17 September and 0505 on 19 September produced ash plumes that rose 500 m above the summit and drifted W and SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit, and 500 m from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that the eruption at Semisopochnoi was ongoing during 13-20 September. Seismicity remained elevated and characterized by intermittent tremor. Low-level ash emissions from the N crater of Mount Cerberus were occasionally visible in mostly cloudy webcam views during 13-15 September. Possible fresh local ashfall was seen in webcam images during 16-17 September. Steam emissions were visible in webcam views during 19-20 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion during 8-15 September. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Plumes of re-suspended ash drifted 90 km E on 8 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 12-19 September. A total of 11 explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 600 m from the vent. Volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Whakaari/White Island
GeoNet reported that minor ash emissions from the active vent area in Whakaari/White Island’s crater were visible in webcam images on 18 September. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange; the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2. Minor light brown ash emissions were visible through the day, and rose no higher than 600 m above the volcano. Ash emissions were not visible beyond the island, but a steam plume was seen from the Bay of Plenty coast. A strong sulfur dioxide signal associated with the emissions was identified in satellite images that same day. One of the seismic stations began working again on 19 September and showed typical low-level seismicity, consistent with no visible ash emissions. GeoNet was unable to accurately characterize the ash emissions due to the lack of data from inoperable instruments and the semi-operational webcam on the island. They noted that the most likely cause was a small amount of magma moving into the shallow part of the volcano.
Source: GeoNet