Activity for the week of 11 July-17 July 2018


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) New
Krakatau Indonesia New
Nevados de Chillan Chile New
Oraefajokull Iceland New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Sierra Negra Isla Isabela (Ecuador) New
Villarrica Chile New

Agung Bali (Indonesia) Ongoing
Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Ambae Vanuatu Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Volcano index photo  Ibu  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.488°N, 127.63°E  | Elevation 1325 m

PVMBG reported that during 10-15 July white-to-gray plumes rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 813 m

PVMBG reported that an event at Anak Krakatau was recorded at 1722 on 15 July that generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted N. An ash plume from a 44-second-long event recorded at 1651 on 16 July rose 500 m and drifted N; thumping and vibrations were noted at the PGA observation post. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Nevados de Chillan  | Chile  | 36.868°S, 71.378°W  | Elevation 3180 m

Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported continuing activity during 11-17 July associated with growth of the Gil-Cruz lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater. Seismicity consisted of long-period events and tremor associated with explosions. The webcam recorded pulsating white gas emissions, nighttime incandescence, and intermittent ejection of ballistics from explosions. A local M3.7 earthquake recorded at 2055 on 13 July was associated with an explosion, and located 430 m below Nicanor Crater. Another earthquake associated with an explosion was recorded at 1530 on 14 July. The event was a local M3.9 and occurred at a depth of 1.4 km. Weather conditions inhibited visual observations of the crater, though a thermal camera measured increased thermal output with a max temperaturs of 300 degrees Celsius. A third earthquake, a M3.8 located at a depth of 1.8 km, was recorded at 0324 on 15 July. Incandescent material was ejected 340 m high. These three explosions partially destroyed the lava dome, ejecting material onto the N and NE flank. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Oraefajokull  | Iceland  | 64.05°N, 16.633°W  | Elevation 2010 m

After a series of meetings between the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the University of Iceland, and Iceland Geosurvey, the Iceland Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management stated on 13 July that Öræfajökull has shown clear signs of unrest for at least the past year and a half. The report noted ongoing inflation and increased seismicity, despite a decrease in geothermal activity since December 2017. The volume change since the beginning of the unrest was about 10 million cubic meters, likely from an injection of new magma.

Source: National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police (NCIP) Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

OVPF reported that inflation at Piton de la Fournaise began at the beginning of July. An abrupt seismic increase was detected at 2340 on 12 July, coupled with rapid deformation. Tremor beneath the N flank appeared at about 0330 on 13 July and gradually increased, and webcams recorded the emergence of lava at 0430. The eruption originated from four fissures which had a total length of 500 m, and were located upstream of Chapelle de Rosemont. Tremor intensity peaked at 0600. By 0800 all four fissures were ejecting lava as high as 20 m, and ‘a’a flows had traveled over 200 m. The most upstream fissure was inactive by 1230. After a period of decreasing tremor and pulsating gas emissions the eruption ended at 2200. Strong seismicity continued to be recorded on 14 July, but then decreased over the next two days. The lava flows covered about 400 m of the trail leading to the summit.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Volcano index photo  Sierra Negra  | Isla Isabela (Ecuador)  | 0.83°S, 91.17°W  | Elevation 1124 m

Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11 July gas-and-ash plumes from Sierra Negra rose 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 85 km W. Gas plumes on 13 July drifted N, NW, and SW. On 16 July gas plumes with minor amounts of ash rose 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Incandescence was visible in webcam images.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

POVI reported that webcam images captured a powerful vapor plume rising from Villarrica at 1047 on 16 July. Tephra was deposited on the inner crater walls.

Source: Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Agung  | Bali (Indonesia)  | 8.343°S, 115.508°E  | Elevation 2997 m

PVMBG reported that an event at 1409 on 13 July generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above Agung’s crater rim and drifted W. An event was detected at 0452 on 15 July, though no ash was visible. An ash plume from an event at 0905 rose 1.5 km and drifted W and SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was unchanged at a 4-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that there were nine events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 9-17 July generating plumes that rose as high as 2.3 km above the crater rim. At 1538 on 16 July an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 4.6 km, and ejected material as far as 1.7 km E. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 16-17 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Ambae  | Vanuatu  | 15.389°S, 167.835°E  | Elevation 1496 m

Based on satellite data, webcam and pilot observations, and wind model data, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 16-17 July ash plumes from the vent at Ambae’s Lake Voui rose to altitudes of 2.3-9.1 km (8,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 11-17 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on 11 July; meteorological cloud cover prevented views of the crater on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on PVMBG observations and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 14-17 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NNE, NE, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-12 July that sent ash plumes as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite data showed ash plumes drifting 37 km W during 10-11 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

INGV reported that during 9-15 July gas emissions continued to rise from Etna’s summit craters. Visibility of the fairly continuous, low-energy, Strombolian activity deep within the Northeast Crater (NEC) and Bocca Nuova was sometimes hindered by gas emissions. Ejected incandescent material fell back into the crater. Strong and prolonged roars (up to several tens of seconds) from NEC were sometimes accompanied by gray-brown and reddish ash emissions. Collapses of the crater’s inner walls widened the crater. Gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) were weak and sometimes pulsating.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 8 and 10-12 July a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images, as well as diffuse gas-and-steam plumes with some ash on 10 July. An explosion at 0550 on 17 July generated an ash plume that rose as high as 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 11 km WSW. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 11-17 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline at multiple ocean entries.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred almost daily, producing gas-and-ash-poor plumes. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater. A few channel overflows occurred. The channelized ‘a’a flow reached the ocean on 12 July, producing a large plume of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles), and covering the Kua O Ka La Charter School and Ahalanui Beach Park. Lava entered the ocean at several points along a broad 6-km-wide flow front, though the main entry area was at Ahalanui (750 m NE of Isaac Hale Park) by 17 July. On 13 July a new island, 6-9 m in diameter, formed a few meters offshore, possibly fed by a submarine tumulus. On 16 July explosions were noted at the main ocean entry, some were strong. Hawaii County Civil Defense Agency noted that an explosion early in the morning ejected tephra that injured 23 people on a nearby tour boat. That same day volcanologists using a RADAR gun measured an average flow velocity of 29 km/hr of lava exiting Fissure 8.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Hawaii County Civil Defense Agency



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that at 1509 on 13 July a minor rockfall descended the Mi-isi drainage on Mayon’s S flank, generating a brownish ash cloud. The event was preceded by heavy rainfall on the upper flanks. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 2,398 tonnes/day. Precise leveling data obtained during 2-14 April indicated inflation relative to data collected in late March; electronic tilt data showed pronounced inflation on the mid-flank beginning on 25 June possibly due to a deep aseismic magma intrusion. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 23 per day during 9-17 July. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S, SE, and E. The MIROVA system detected two thermal anomalies. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 6-13 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Stromboli  | Aeolian Islands (Italy)  | 38.789°N, 15.213°E  | Elevation 924 m

INGV reported that activity at Stromboli during 9-15 July was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents. Explosions mainly from two vents in Area N (north crater area) and three vents in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 14-19 per hour, except four per hour were recorded on 15 July. Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (NCA) ejected lapilli and bombs as high as 80 m. Explosions at the N2 vent (NCA) ejected tephra 120 m high. Vent C (Area C-S) produced gas emissions and sporadic spattering. Low-intensity explosions at S2 (Area C-S) ejected tephra less than 80 m high.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks



The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)