Activity for the week of 19 April-25 April 2017
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 19 April-25 April 2017
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Kambalny||Southern Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Langila||New Britain (Papua New Guinea)||New|
|Manam||Papua New Guinea||New|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Bezymianny||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Bogoslof||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Cleveland||Chuginadak Island (USA)||Ongoing|
|Ebeko||Paramushir Island (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Nevados de Chillan||Chile||Ongoing|
|San Miguel||El Salvador||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.488°N, 127.63°E | Elevation 1325 m
Kambalny | Southern Kamchatka (Russia) | 51.306°N, 156.875°E | Elevation 2116 m
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Kambalny continued during 15-21 April. Observers in the South Kamchatka Sanctuary noted minor ashfall in the Kurilskoe Lake area on 19 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) | 5.525°S, 148.42°E | Elevation 1330 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-25 April ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifted S and 55 km SE.
Manam | Papua New Guinea | 4.08°S, 145.037°E | Elevation 1807 m
RVO reported that activity at Manam decreased on 18 April and continued at low levels through 21 April. Roaring noises came from both Main and Southern craters. Both craters were incandescent, but only Southern Crater ejected incandescent tephra, which became intense during 0900-1100 on 20 April. Pale gray-to-brown plumes with a minor amounts of ash rose from both craters and drifted SE. RSAM values were about 75-150 units, but between about midnight and 0100 on 22 April they began to rise. RSAM values were 600 at 0500, and then they fluctuated between 400 and 1,400 units at least through 1400, the time of the report posting. According to a news article from 25 April the Alert Level was raised to Stage 3, and an official on the island noted that women and children have begun to be evacuated to Bogia on the mainland.
Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Radio New Zealand International News
Nishinoshima | Japan | 27.247°N, 140.874°E | Elevation 25 m
Satellite images of Nishinoshima acquired on 19 April and processed by NASA's Earth Observatory showed an area of hot lava in the crater. According to a news article, observers aboard a plane passing the volcano on 21 April noted intense activity in the crater. Bombs were ejected as high as 100 m above the crater and incandescent rocks rolled down the flanks, reaching the sea. The report noted brown plumes rising from the crater and lava effusing from an area near the top of the vent.
Poas | Costa Rica | 10.2°N, 84.233°W | Elevation 2708 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 20 April a dense water vapor plume rose from a vent in the newly-forming pyroclastic cone at the site of the old dome in the hot lake at Poás. Gas flux increased from 1,000 tons/day (t/d) on 13 April to 2,500 t/d on 20 April. During 20-22 April Strombolian activity ejected tephra that fell around the vent within a 300-m radius. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 200 m above the vent. The Red Cross of Grecia reported ashfall in Alajuela, Fraijanes, San Miguel, Carbonal, Cajón, San Francisco, San Roque, and San Juan Norte de Poás. Events at 1316 and 1603 on 22 April produced plumes of unknown height. Several more eruptive events were recorded that day; an event at 2212 was very intense, ejecting bombs large distances. An event at 1215 on 23 April generated a plume of unknown height.
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-17 April ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, SE, and S. Plumes drifted 55-85 km during 19 and 23-24 April.
Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 55.972°N, 160.595°E | Elevation 2882 m
KVERT reported that during 14-21 April lava continued to advance down the NW flank of Bezymianny's lava dome. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 14-17 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) | 53.93°N, 168.03°W | Elevation 150 m
On 19 April AVO noted that no new volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since a short-lived increase in seismicity on 15 April; AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory.
Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) | 52.825°N, 169.944°W | Elevation 1730 m
AVO reported that recent satellite images of Cleveland revealed that a lava dome has been extruded in the summit crater, with growth likely beginning after the last explosion on 31 March. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch.
Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images over the past couple of weeks. The new dome was first visible in images on 15 April, with the presence of a small (less than 10 m diameter) mound deep in the crater. By 23 April this mound had grown to 45 m in diameter. Dome growth had occurred with no detectable seismicity.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-25 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.
Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) | 50.686°N, 156.014°E | Elevation 1103 m
KVERT reported that on 14, 16, and 19 April several explosions at Ebeko were observed by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E. Ash plumes rose as high as 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. Minor amounts of ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 18 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 19-25 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. A growing lava delta is building where the lava enters the water. Surface lava flows were active above the pali.
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly was detected over Klyuchevskoy during 14-17 and 23 April. A steam-and-gas plume that rose to 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km SW on 23 April contained some ash, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange. On 24 April satellite images showed an ash plume drifting 72 km SW at an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. On 25 April KVERT noted that activity had significantly decreased and only steam-and-gas emissions were observed. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. On 25 April ash was again present in a plume; KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange. The plume rose 3-4 km (9,800-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 60 km SW.
Nevados de Chillan | Chile | 36.863°S, 71.377°W | Elevation 3212 m
Sabancaya | Peru | 15.78°S, 71.85°W | Elevation 5967 m
Based on webcam images, satellite views, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported sporadic gas-and-ash puffs from Sabancaya during 18-25 April, sometimes rising as high as 8.2 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.; clouds sometimes hindered observations of the volcano.
San Miguel | El Salvador | 13.434°N, 88.269°W | Elevation 2130 m
In a special report from 17 April, SNET reported an increase in seismicity and gas emissions from San Miguel in recent days. Earlier that day during 0620-0630 RSAM values spiked to 356, an increase over normal values around 50. During 18-21 and 23-24 April RSAM values fluctuated between 80 and over 300.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 15-21 April lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the dome during 13-17 April, and an ash plume that drifted 95 km E on 15 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 and 24 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.3 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and E.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Arenal||Grimsvotn||Manda Hararo||Seulawah Agam|
|Axial Seamount||Hekla||McDonald Islands||Sirung|
|Bagana||Home Reef||Metis Shoal||Sorikmarapi|
|Bamus||Hudson, Cerro||Miyakejima||Soufrière Hills|
|Banda Api||Huila, Nevado del||Momotombo||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Bardarbunga||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Monowai||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Barren Island||Ibu||Montagu Island||Spurr|
|Batur||Ijen||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||St. Helens|
|Bristol Island||Ioto||Negro, Cerro||Sundoro|
|Cameroon||Kaba||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kambalny||Nyamuragira||Takawangha|
|Chiles-Cerro Negro||Kasatochi||Palena Volcanic Group||Tara, Batu|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Katla||Paluweh||Telica|
|Cotopaxi||Kick 'em Jenny||Poas||Toliman|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Klyuchevskoy||Raoul Island||Ulawun|
|Dukono||Kolokol Group||Rasshua||Unknown Source|
|Ekarma||Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker||Rincon de la Vieja||West Mata|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamongan||Ruapehu||Zavodovski|
|Eyjafjallajokull||Langila||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zhupanovsky|
|Fonualei||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Salak|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Leroboleng||San Cristobal|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)