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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail.

This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives on various volcanoes are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 17 February-23 February 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2013 Sep 3 New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) 2019 Apr 9 New
Krysuvik Iceland New
Laguna del Maule Central Chile-Argentina border New
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days New
Raung Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2021 Jan 21 New
Sarychev Peak Matua Island (Russia) 2021 Jan 7 New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2020 Dec 20 Continuing
Lewotolo Lomblen Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Semisopochnoi United States Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Sinabung Indonesia 2020 Aug 8 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Whakaari/White Island North Island (New Zealand) Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,408 individual reports over 1,051 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 309 different volcanoes.

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Agung Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Papandayan Sorikmarapi
Ahyi Copahue Ijen Lewotolo Parker Sotara
Aira Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Pavlof Soufriere Hills
Akan Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Pelee Soufriere St. Vincent
Alaid Cumbal Inielika Loihi Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
Alu-Dalafilla Dabbahu Ioto Lokon-Empung Pinatubo Spurr
Ambae Dempo Irazu Lopevi Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Ambang Descabezado Grande Iya Machin Poas Stromboli
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makian Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Anatahan Dukono Jackson Segment Makushin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sumbing
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebeko Kaba Maly Semyachik Rabaul Sundoro
Antuco Ebulobo Kadovar Manam Raikoke Suretamatai
Apoyeque Egon Kambalny Manda Hararo Ranakah Suwanosejima
Arenal Ekarma Kanaga Marapi Raoul Island Taal
Asamayama Epi Kanlaon Maroa Rasshua Tair, Jebel at
Askja Erebus Karangetang Martin Raung Takawangha
Asosan Erta Ale Karkar Masaya Redoubt Talang
Augustine Etna Karthala Maule, Laguna del Reventador Tambora
Avachinsky Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mauna Loa Reykjanes Tanaga
Awu Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi Mayon Rincon de la Vieja Tandikat-Singgalang
Axial Seamount Fernandina Katla McDonald Islands Rinjani Tangkoko-Duasudara
Azul, Cerro Fogo Katmai Melimoyu Ritter Island Tangkuban Parahu
Azumayama Fonualei Kavachi Merapi Rotorua Tara, Batu
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Midagahara Ruang Telica
Balbi Fourpeaked Kelut Misti, El Ruapehu Tenerife
Bamus Fuego Kerinci Miyakejima Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Banda Api Fujisan Ketoi Momotombo Sabancaya Three Sisters
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Monowai Sakar Tinakula
Barren Island Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Montagu Island Salak Tofua
Batur Galunggung Kikai Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bezymianny Gamalama Kilauea Mutnovsky San Miguel Tolbachik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kirishimayama Myojinsho San Vicente Toliman
Brava Gaua Kizimen Nabro Sangay Tongariro
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Negra, Sierra Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group Negro, Cerro Santa Ana Turrialba
Calbuco Grimsvotn Korovin Nightingale Island Santa Maria Ubinas
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Koryaksky Nishinoshima Sarigan Ulawun
Cameroon Guallatiri Krakatau Nisyros Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Novarupta Saunders Unnamed
Cayambe Hachijojima Krysuvik NW Rota-1 Semeru Veniaminof
Cereme Hakoneyama Kuchinoerabujima Nyamuragira Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kurikomayama Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam West Mata
Chaiten Hekla Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okataina Sheveluch Westdahl
Chiginagak Helgrindur Kverkfjoll Okmok Shishaldin Whakaari/White Island
Chikurachki Hierro Lamington Ontakesan Simbo Witori
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Oraefajokull Sinabung Wolf
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Langila Osorno Sinarka Yasur
Chirinkotan Hood Lanin Pacaya Siple Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lascar Pagan Sirung Zavodovski
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Palena Volcanic Group Slamet Zhupanovsky
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Paluweh Snaefellsjokull Zubair Group
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Panarea Soputan
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Etna
INGV reported that a series of paroxysmal events separated by relative calm periods at Etna began on 16 February and continued at least through 23 February. The first episode began late on 16 February, characterized by gradually increasing Strombolian activity at the E vents of the Southeast Crater (SEC). Overflows of lava from the crater at 1805 caused a partial collapse of the cone and a pyroclastic flow that traveled 1.5 km along the W wall of the Valle de Bove. Lava fountains afterwards rose 500-600 m high. An eruptive plume rose several kilometers and drifted S, causing ashfall in areas as far as Syracuse, 60-80 km SSE. Lava flows advanced into the Valle de Bove and the Valle del Leone, and produced explosions in areas where they interacted with snow cover. Activity ended around 1900.

After a 30-hour pause the second paroxysmal episode began at 2330 on 17 February with overflows of lava from the eastern SEC vents. Lava fountaining began just after 0100 the next morning. Lava flows traveled towards the Valle de Bove, NE, SE, and SW. The eruption plume drifted SE, causing ashfall in Zafferana Etnea and Acireale. The lava fountains reached maximum heights of 600-700 m then ceased around 0140.

After another pause lasting about 32 hours, lava overflowed the SEC at around 0855 on 19 February. A rapid increase in explosive activity followed and lava fountaining began during 0945-0950. At 0953 lava fountains emerged from the S, or saddle, vent. At this time there were “fan-shaped” lava fountains rising from 4-5 vents orientated E-W. The eruption plume rose 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, again causing ashfall in downwind municipalities. Lava flowed S and towards the Valle de Bove causing explosions where they interacted with snow. Explosive activity ceased at 1110. Lab analysis of lava samples collected during 16-19 February eruptions showed that the magma was the most primitive over the past 20 years, meaning that the composition had changed little from its formation at depth and that it ascended quickly.

Weak Strombolian activity was visible in the late afternoon of 20 February. At 2230 a small lava flow descended a deep notch at the E end of the SEC and traveled towards the Valle de Bove. By 2300 the Strombolian activity had shifted to pulsating lava fountaining. Beginning at 0100 on 21 February more western vents became active and the E vents jetted lava 600-800 m high. Activity intensified at 0128 with jets of lava that rose more than 1 km high and were sustained for about 10 minutes. An eruption plume again rose to 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Beginning at 0200 the lava fountain became smaller, and at 0220 explosive activity ceased. Lava flowed SW and into the Valle de Bove.

Periodic ash emissions rose from both the S and E vents later than evening. Lava overflowed the SE crater just after 2230 and advanced 1 km towards the Valle de Bove. Lava fountains and Strombolian explosions occurred at multiple vents. Activity intensified at 0128 on 21 February and lava fountains rose 800-1,000 m above the SEC. Lava flowed from the S vent and an eruption plume rose several kilometers, but activity rapidly ceased at 0220. Lava flows continued to advance in the Valle de Bove; the longest flows were 3.5-4 km from the crater, between elevations of 1,700 and 1,800 m. During 0430-0515 very intense explosions from multiple SEC vents ejected incandescent bombs that fell as far as the base of the cone.

Weak Strombolian explosions at the SEC crater were visible late on 22 February. The frequency and intensity of the explosions increased and by 2210 material was ejected onto the flanks. By 2305 jets of lava were 300 m high, and by 2327 lava fountains rose from a second vent. Lava overflowed the crater at 2328 and headed towards the Valle de Bove. Within the first hour on 23 February lava fountains rose more than 1.5 km high and a sub-Plinian eruption plume had risen several kilometers above the summit, making this episode the most powerful and intense compared to the previous four. Lava overflowed the S vent and descended SW. Lava fountaining suddenly decreased at 0115 on 23 February, though lava flows continued to be fed. Strombolian activity again intensified at 0450, accompanied by ash emissions. Two lava flows formed and traveled SW and SE, the latter was longest and reached 1,700-1,800 m elevation. The activity ended at 1000.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that during 1100-1150 on 18 February a new vent opened on Klyuchevskoy’s lower NW flank, near Erman glacier at elevations of 2,500-2,700 m, based on satellite images. Snowfall in the area of Klyuchi during 18-19 February inhibited webcam views. Bright incandescence was visible in webcam images beginning at 0323 on 21 February, likely indicating an advancing lava flow. On 23 February the Kamchatka Volcanological Station team reported that lava was flowing from two vents and bombs were being ejected 50 m high. A lahar along the Krutenkaya River was visible in an area 7 km E of Klyuchi Village (30 km NNE). Bright incandescence over the two flank vents was identified in satellite and video images on 24 February. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Kamchatka Volcanological Station
Report for Krysuvik
IMO raised the Aviation Color Code for Krýsuvík to Yellow on 24 February based on recent increased seismicity. Intense seismic activity had been detected for the previous few days and since midnight through the generation of the report at 1107 more than 500 earthquakes had been recorded. At 1005 a M 5.7 earthquake occurred 5 km W of Krýsuvík and at 1027 a M 4.2 was located in Nupshlidarhals, less than 1 km NW of Krýsuvík. The seismic unrest was unusual for the area in the context of the unrest in the Reykjanes peninsula that began in January 2020.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Laguna del Maule
SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-16 February the seismic network at Laguna del Maule recorded a total of 533 volcano-tectonic earthquakes. Two earthquake swarms were recorded during 15-16 February; the largest events were local magnitude 3.1, and were located 9.1 and 8.8 km SW of the lake at a depth of 1.9 km. The epicenters were near the area producing anomalous carbon dioxide emissions. Swarms were recorded in June and December 2020, and January and February 2021, with the largest events occurring during the most recent swarm.

The highest rate of inflation during the previous 30 days was 2.3 cm/month, recorded at a station closest to the center of deformation. The highest horizontal displacement was an estimated 1.4 cm/month from a station just SW of the center. InSAR data mostly showed agreement in the magnitude and distribution of the ground-based deformation data. Overall, the deformation rates were higher than maximum averages. On 22 February the Alert Level was raised to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI declared a Yellow Alert for San Clemente and recommended restricted access within a radius of 2 km from the center of elevated carbon dioxide emissions.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH reported that seismicity at Pacaya increased around 0900 on 18 February. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m above Mackenney Crater and explosions produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 450 m and drifted mostly NE and S. An active lava flow on the SSW flank was 1.1 km long and generated hot block avalanches from the flow front. A lava flow emerged on the SW flank on 19 February. During 19-20 February periods of increased activity lasted 3-5 hours; moderate-to-loud explosions were accompanied by rumbling and sounds resembling trains. Ballistics were ejected 300- 500 m from the crater and ash plumes rose as high as 450 m and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including El Rodeo and El Patrocinio. A lava flow on the S flank was 800 m long and produced incandescent blocks from the flow front that descended 500 m.

Strombolian activity increased on the morning of 20 February but fluctuated throughout the day. Ash plumes, that were dense during periods of heightened activity, rose 450 m and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, and W. As it grew darker lava fountains were visible rising 300-400 m and ballistics were ejected as far as 500 m from the crater. The lava flow on the S flank had lengthened to 1.1 km. Strombolian explosions continued during 21-22 February, ejecting incandescent material 100-175 m high. Ash plumes rose 450-800 m above the summit and drifted possibly as far as 15 km NW, W, and SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including San Francisco de Sales, El Cedro, El Rodeo, and El Patrocinio. Ballistics were ejected as far as 500 m from the crater. Blocks from the front of the lava flow descended 300 m. Weak explosions during 22-23 February ejected incandescent material as high as 100 m above the summit. A 900-m-long lava flow was active on the SSW flank. Ash plumes drifted 5 km S.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Raung
PVMBG reported that daily gray and sometimes black ash plumes rose 200-1,200 m above Raung’s summit during 17-23 February. Ash plumes were sometimes dense and drifted mainly N, NE, E, and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sarychev Peak
SVERT noted that thermal anomalies over Sarychev Peak were identified in satellite images during 9-10 and 12-14 February. KVERT reported on 19 February that the effusive eruption was over, though lava continued to advance in the summit crater and a thermal anomaly remained visible. KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that during 15-22 February incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. An explosion on 16 February generated an eruption plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 1-1.3 km away from the crater. That same day the sulfur dioxide emission rate was extremely high, at 4,300 tons per day. An ash plume from an explosion at 2253 on 21 February rose 1.6 km and entered weather clouds. Large bombs were ejected 800-1,100 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 12, 14-15, and 17 February that sent ash plumes to 2.1 km (6,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 15 February and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 17 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 4-12 explosions were recorded per hour during 17-23 February at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Notably, on 17 February ash plumes drifted as far as 50 km E, causing ashfall in local communities as well as in Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Ash plumes drifted 40 km SW on 18 February. Curtains of old ash deposits remobilized by strong winds were observed during 19-21 February. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m above the summit during 19-22 February.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that on most days during 17-23 February gray-and-white ash plume from Ibu were seen rising 200-800 m above the summit and drifting in multiple directions. Weather conditions sometimes hindered observations. The report stated that during 16-17 February there were a total of 88 eruptive events. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 February. The depth of the western part of the lake fluctuated between 215 and 218 m and the lake surface actively overturned at “plate” boundaries. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was elevated at 1,000 tons/day on 19 February.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Lewotolo
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 16-23 February; weather conditions sometimes hindered visual observations. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 50-500 m above the summit and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the 2021 lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the new lava dome in the summit crater both continued to grow during 12-18 February. The 2021 lava dome volume was an estimated 397,500 cubic meters on 17 February, with a growth rate of about 25,200 cubic meters per day; it was 258 m long, 133 m wide, and 30 m high. The summit lava dome was an estimated 426,000 cubic meters, with a growth rate of about 10,000 cubic meters per day; it was 160 m long, 120 m wide, and 50 m high. Seismicity was less intense than the previous week. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data showed no notable deformation. PVMBG noted that foggy conditions often prevented visual observations during 18-23 February, though sometimes white emissions were observed rising up to 400 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Sources: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 71 explosions at Sabancaya during 15-21 February. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.2 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. Ten thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected in areas N of Hualca Hualca (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 17-23 February, though weather conditions often prevented visual confirmation. At 0601 on 17 February an ash plume rose 300 m and drifted N. A white-and-gray ash plume rose 100 m and drifted N, NE, and E on 18 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that no significant activity at Semisopochnoi was recorded after several ash deposits were visible in satellite images during 6-7 February. On 19 February the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Yellow/Advisory, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 12-19 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Sinabung
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 17-23 February, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual confirmation. White plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. On 21 February pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 2 km down the E and SE flanks. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported intermittent eruptive events at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 12-19 February. These events produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 300 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Whakaari/White Island
GeoNet reported that beginning around 0220 on 19 February a series of short-lived, low-energy steam explosions at Whakaari/White Island were recorded for about 100 minutes by local seismic and acoustic instruments. Webcam images were dark due to the time of day; no trace ash deposits were visible. Tremor had begun around 2100 the night before and then ceased at 0550 when the steam explosions ended. Visual observations and gas flux measurements taken during an overflight on 18 February showed no changes compared to the previous month. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green.
Source: GeoNet