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Current Eruptions

Overall, 47 volcanoes were in continuing eruption status as of 15 December 2023. An eruption marked as "continuing" does not always mean persistent daily activity, but indicates at least intermittent eruptive events without a break of 3 months or more. There are typically 40-50 continuing eruptions, and out of those generally around 20 will be actively erupting on any particular day (though we do not keep detailed statistics on daily activity). Additional annual eruption data is available for recent years.

The Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report (WVAR) for the week ending on 20 February 2024 includes the 22 volcanoes shown below marked "Yes" in the WVAR column (rollover for report). The most recently started eruption is at the top, continuing as of the Last Known Activity date. An eruption listed here might have ended since the last data update, or at the update time a firm end date had not yet been determined due to potential renewed activity. Complete updates are done about every 6-8 weeks, but information about newer eruptions can be found in the Weekly Report.

Volcano Country Eruption Start Date Last Known Activity Max VEI WVAR
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) Yes
Ioto Japan 2023 Oct 30 0020 Dec 15 (continuing)
Ulawun Papua New Guinea 2023 Jul 18 2023 Dec 14 (continuing)
Shishaldin United States 2023 Jul 12 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) Yes
Ubinas Peru 2023 Jun 22 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) Yes
Klyuchevskoy Russia 2023 Jun 22 2023 Dec 15 (continuing)
Mayon Philippines 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days 2023 Dec 14 (continuing)
Kikai Japan 2023 Mar 27 2023 Nov 22 (continuing)
Etna Italy 2022 Nov 27 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 1
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 2 Yes
Kavachi Solomon Islands 2021 Oct 2 2023 Dec 11 (continuing) 0 Yes
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica 2021 Jun 28 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 2
Krakatau Indonesia 2021 May 25 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 2
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 2 Yes
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 1 Yes
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 2 Yes
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 2
Tinakula Solomon Islands 2018 Dec 8 (in or before) 2023 Sep 23 (continuing) 2
Karangetang Indonesia 2018 Nov 25 2023 Nov 24 (continuing) 2
Nyamulagira DR Congo 2018 Apr 18 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 0
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 4 Yes
Ol Doinyo Lengai Tanzania 2017 Apr 9 2023 Dec 9 (continuing) 0
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 1 Yes
Bezymianny Russia 2016 Dec 5 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 3
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 3 Yes
Langila Papua New Guinea 2015 Oct 22 (?) 2023 Nov 24 (continuing) 2
Masaya Nicaragua 2015 Oct 3 2023 Dec 13 (continuing) 1
Tofua Tonga 2015 Oct 2 2023 Dec 13 (continuing) 0
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 3 Yes
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 2 Yes
Saunders United Kingdom 2014 Nov 12 2023 Oct 4 (continuing) 1
Manam Papua New Guinea 2014 Jun 29 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 4
Heard Australia 2012 Sep 5 ± 4 days 2023 Dec 11 (continuing) 0
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 2
Ibu Indonesia 2008 Apr 5 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 1
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 2 Yes
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 2 Yes
Nyiragongo DR Congo 2002 May 17 (?) 2023 Oct 24 (continuing) 2
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 3
Bagana Papua New Guinea 2000 Feb 28 (in or before) 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 2
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 4 Yes
Erebus Antarctica 1972 Dec 16 (in or before) ± 15 days 2023 Dec 11 (continuing) 2
Erta Ale Ethiopia 1967 Jul 2 (in or before) ± 182 days 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 0
Stromboli Italy 1934 Feb 2 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 2
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 3 Yes
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 2023 Dec 15 (continuing) 3
Yasur Vanuatu 1270 ± 110 years 2023 Dec 14 (continuing) 3
Report for Kavachi
Satellite data showed distinct yellow-green discolored water in the vicinity of the submarine Kavachi volcano on 14 and 19 February. The discolored water extended 15-20 km SE and E.
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 14-20 February. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 200-900 m above them summit and drifted in multiple directions during 14-15, 18, and 20 February. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 400 m and drifted SW, W, and NE on 17 February; no emissions were observed on 16 and 19 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 9-15 February. Seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 189 lava avalanches, three times the number from the previous week, that descended the S and SW flanks; two traveled S as far as 1.4 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage and 187 traveled SW as far as 1.7 km down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage. Two pyroclastic flows descended the Bebeng drainage, traveling as far as 1.5 km. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome identified in webcam images and during a 15 February drone overflight were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. The highest temperature on the dome was 254.3 degrees Celsius, lower than the previous highest temperature. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 14-20 February. Daily gray-and-white ash plumes rose 400-1,000 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. The plumes were often dense. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotobi’s Laki-laki volcano was ongoing during 13-20 February. The lava flow on the NE flank continued to be active, advancing 100 m during 3-20 February to a total length of 4.2 km. A drone overflight on 20 February confirmed the position of the end of the lava flow. White steam-and-gas plumes were visible during 13, 15, 17, and 19-20 February rising as high as 100 m above the summit and drifting N, NE, and W; no emissions were observed on 14 February. White-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 600 m above the summit on 16 and 18 February and drifted N and NE. According to a news article, all evacuees had returned to their homes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the second highest level on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside of the exclusion zone, defined as a 3-km radius around Laki-laki crater, 4 km to the NNE, and 5 km on the NE flanks.
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 31 January-6 February. White gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 700 m above the summit and drifted NW, E, and SE during 14-19 February. A dense white-and-gray ash plume rose 1 km above the summit and drifted SE at 1639 on 19 February according to a news report. Emissions were not visible on 20 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 14-20 February. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 150-750 m above the summit and drifted S, W, and NW on most days; emissions were not observed on 16 February. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Report for Taal
In a special report issued for Taal on 19 February, PHIVOLCS noted that sulfur dioxide emissions were as high as 14,211 tonnes per day (t/d) and that a sulfur odor was reported in the neighborhoods of Bilibinwang and Banyaga, in the Municipality of Agoncillo. Sulfur dioxide emissions have been continuously released since 2021 and averaged 10,000 t/d during January-February 2024. Seismicity has been low in 2024 with only 17 volcanic earthquakes, mainly associated with gas emissions. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 12-19 February. Crater incandescence was observed in webcam images nightly. Eruptive events at 0810 and 1414 on 13 February generated ash plumes that rose 1.1-1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted N. An explosion at 1908 on 15 February generated an ash plume that rose 400 m and drifted E. Explosions were also detected at 2125 on 15 February and at 0616 on 19 February, though details of emissions were unknown. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 12-19 February with nighttime crater incandescence. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,400 tons per day on 20 December. An explosion at 0659 on 14 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted N, and ejected blocks 300-500 m away from the vent. A larger explosion at 1833 on 14 February produced an ash plume that rose as high as 5 km above the summit that drifted E and NE and ejected large blocks as far as 1.3 km from the vent. Ash plumes had not risen that high since an explosion at 0538 on 9 August 2020. A large amount of ashfall completely covered roadways in some parts of the N part of the island based on 15 February field observations. Residents reported ashfall in Kagoshima, Aira, Kirishima, Kanoya, Soo, and parts of Miyazaki Prefecture. Eruptive events at 2220 on 16 February, and 1523, 1556, 1631, and 2359 on 17 February, generated ash plumes that rose 1-1.3 km above the summit and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 8-15 February. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 8 and 11-15 February generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l and drifted E. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 15 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 8-15 February with a daily thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Report for Gareloi
AVO reported that unrest continued at Gareloi during 14-20 February. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by volcanic earthquakes and semi-continuous tremor, though after 16 February levels began to decline and only periods of seismic tremor were reported. Minor steaming was identified in webcam and satellite images on 14 February. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest color on a four-color scale).
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion likely continued at Great Sitkin during 13-20 February with growth concentrated at the center of the flow in the summit crater. Steam emissions were visible in satellite and webcam images during 14-15 February. A 15 February radar image showed inflation near the summit crater vent and a new lobe of lava advancing NW. A few small volcanic earthquakes were recorded by the seismic network on most days. Weather clouds obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Report for Shishaldin
AVO reported that low-level unrest at Shishaldin continued during 13-20 February. Occasional small volcanic earthquakes were recorded daily by the seismic network. Robust steaming was observed in satellite and webcam images and reported by local pilots on 13 February, and minor steaming was visible in satellite and webcam images during 14-15 February. AVO noted that steam emissions were not uncommon at Shishaldin. At 1126 on 17 February AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second lowest color on a four-color scale) noting that there were no signs of eruptive activity.
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatépetl during 14-20 February. Long-period events totaling 9-330 per day were accompanied by steam-and-gas plumes that occasionally contained minor amounts of ash. The seismic network recorded from 9 to almost 24 hours of daily tremor, often characterized as high frequency and low amplitude. The Washington VAAC reported that daily ash plumes visible in webcam and/or satellite images rose to km (19,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, SSE, and S. Based on information from El Centro Nacional de Comunicación y Operación de Protección Civil (CENACOM), CENAPRED noted that at 0830 on 14 February minor amounts of ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Nativitas (40 km NE), Santa Isabel (45 km ESE), Tetlatlahuaca (42 km NE), Tlaxcala (51 km NE), Santa Ana Chiautempan, and Zacatelco (45 km NE). Additionally, the Hermanos Serdán International Airport, located 30 km NE in the municipality of Huejotzingo, was closed during 0800-1300 so that ashfall could be cleared from the runway. Later that afternoon ashfall was reported in Puebla (43 km E). Minor ashfall was reported in the municipality of Hueyapan (17 km SSW) at 2025 on 19 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 12 km away from the crater.
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that eruptive activity at Nevado del Ruiz continued at moderate levels during 13-19 February. Seismic events indicating rock fracturing increased in number compared to the previous week. These events were located in areas up to 7 km in various directions from Arenas Crater at depths of 1-8 km. The largest earthquake, a M 1.6, was recorded at 1518 on 18 February and was located SE of the crater at a depth of 2 km. Seismicity associated with fluid movement in the conduit decreased in both number and magnitude. These events were mainly associated with ash-and-gas emissions that rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted NW. Several thermal anomalies on the crater floor were identified in satellite data; the highest value recorded since 2007 (when this type of monitoring began) was recorded on 15 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Level III (the second level on a four-level scale), and the public was warned to stay out of the restricted areas around Arenas Crater.
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that the eruption at Sabancaya continued at moderate levels during 12-18 February with a daily average of 35 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.6 km above the summit and drifted less than 10 km E, SE, and W. Thermal anomalies over the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Slight inflation was detected near the Hualca Hualca sector (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12 km radius.
Report for El Misti
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a lahar descended the SE flank of El Misti at 1905 on 20 February. The public was warned to stay away from drainages and roads on that flank.
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a lahar descended the Volcánmayo drainage on the SE flank at Ubinas at 1645 on 19 February. The report noted that the lahars traveled towards the Ubinas River. The public was warned to stay away from the drainage and to avoid driving on the Querapi-Ubinas-Huarina highway.
Report for Villarrica
SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption at Villarrica continued during 12-20 February. At 1937 on 12 February a long-period (LP) earthquake associated with fluid movement was accompanied by a gas emission with minor ash content that rose 420 m above the vent and drifted SW. LP earthquakes at 2206 on 13 February and 0153 on 14 February were accompanied by Strombolian explosions that ejected material 40-60 m high. The ejected material fell back into the crater. LP events were recorded at 0740 on 15 February and 0228 on 17 February, though no emissions were visible on the 15th and weather conditions prevented visual observations on the 17th. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater.
Report for Reykjanes
A fissure eruption in the area between Sundhnúkur and Stóra Skógfell on the Reykjanes peninsula began at 0602 on 8 February after around 30 minutes of intense seismic activity, prompting IMO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). During a helicopter overflight the location of the fissure was confirmed to be near the 18 December 2023 fissure, less than 1 km NE of Sylingarfell. The fissure lengthened to 3 km N-S, with lava flows moving W and E. Lava fountains along the fissure rose 50-80 m high and a volcanic plume mainly comprised of gas and steam rose to 3 km. IMO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange at 0626, noting that ash was not present in the plume. Tephra fall was reported in parts of Grindavík, 3-5 km S of the fissure. Visitors to the Blue Lagoon were evacuated; there were no residents in Grindavík due to previous evacuations.

Deformation in the dike area had significantly decreased by noon, and the intensity of the eruption had also declined, with only three active craters along the fissure. Emissions from the fissure drifted SW. Lava advanced N, curving around the Stóra Skógfell cones and branching to the SW. The SW branch advanced at a rate of about 500 m per hour, according to a news article, and flowed over both Grindavíkurvegur (Road 43) and Bláalóns-road, at the exit for the Blue Lagoon, at around noon. Lava also advanced over the pipeline that supplied hot water to Svartsengi. Power lines were also affected by the flows, though electricity was restored later that day.

Minor explosive activity generated from the interaction of magma and ground water began during 1300-1400 on 8 February and produced dark plumes rising as high as 2.5 km from the middle of the fissure and drifting S. The explosive activity was mainly over by 1715 and the intensity of the eruption continued to decrease. Deformation was no longer being detected, suggesting that magma was no longer ascending at the same pressure as at the beginning of the eruption. Seismic activity significantly decreased after the onset of the eruption and remained at low levels with only about 20 small earthquakes recorded during 0800-1715. Lava flowed as far as 4.5 km W of the fissure. Activity and tremor levels fluctuated at low levels during the evening of the 8th and further decreased during 0700-0800 on 9 February, with only two craters active. No fountains were visible mid-morning; a drone overflight at around noon confirmed that activity had ceased. IMO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow at 1713.

Deformation data suggested that inflation began again after the eruption had ended; model calculations showed that during 9-14 February an estimated two million cubic meters of magma had accumulated beneath the Svartsengi area, or about 20% of the volume of magma that had accumulated before the 8 February eruption. The hot water pipeline was restored by 12 February and the Blue Lagoon reopened to visitors on 16 February.