Report for Barren Island
Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 and 16 March ash plumes from Barren Island rose to altitudes of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) and 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l., respectively, and drifted W and SW.
Report for Kerinci
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 March an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S based on information from PVMBG. On 15 March an ash plume identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 4.3 (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and tourists were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that there were four explosive events at Anak Krakatau on 14 March, recorded at 0816, 1711, 1716, and 2126, producing white plumes that drifted S and SW. An event at 0953 on 16 March produced a white plume that rose 1 km and drifted N. White plumes from events at 0605 and 0905 on 18 March generated white plumes that rose 500 m and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.
Report for Merapi
PVMBG reported that the slow extrusion of a lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued during 11-17 March. The volume of the lava dome had not changed since the last measurement of 470,000 cubic meters estimated on 5 March. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. Block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1,500 m down the Gendol drainage on 12, 15, and 17 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Report for Tengger Caldera
PVMBG reported that during 1 January-17 March plumes rising from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone were generally white to gray in color, had variable densities, and rose no higher than 700 m above the crater rim. Tremor signals increased on 10 March and were accompanied by changes in the color and height of the emissions. On 16 March a dense gray ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted E, causing ashfall in areas both inside and outside the caldera. Two seismic signals indicating explosions were recorded around 1547 on 17 March. Periods of continuous ash emissions were observed during 17-18 March, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifting NE, N, NW, and W. At 1020 on 19 March a black ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted E and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Report for Agung
PVMBG reported that at 1827 on 15 March an explosive event at Agung was recorded for one minute and 23 seconds and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 1 km above the crater rim and drifted NNW. Minor ashfall was reported in the villages of Kubu (6 km N), Tianyar (14 km NNW), Ban, Kadundung, and Sukadana. At 0803 on 17 March an event was recorded for 39 seconds and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 500 m above the crater rim and drifted E. A second event began at 1030 and lasted about one minute and 16 seconds; a dense gray ash plume rose about 600 m and drifted E. At 0736 on 18 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W and NW. Thermal satellite images continue to indicate hot areas in the crater on the previously-erupted lava surface especially near the flow margins. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite images, wind model data, and PVMBG observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-18 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and SSE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Report for Mayon
PHIVOLCS reported that during 13-19 March white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted mainly W and SW, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Three phreatic events, recorded at 1510, 1518, and 1534 on 12 March, generated light-brown-to-grayish ash plumes that rose 500-1,000 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Six phreatic events on 13 March, recorded at 0906, 0939, 0946, 0955, 1000, and 1059, produced ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted W. A phreatic event at 1855 on 14 March generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 8-15 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 400 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Report for Aira
JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible during 11-18 March. There were nine events and four explosions detected during 11-15 March ejecting material as far as 1.3 km. One of the events, recorded at 2323 on 14 March generated an ash plume that rose 3.5 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 1.1 km. During 16-18 March there were eight events and two explosions. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Report for Kirishimayama
The number of volcanic earthquakes below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased on 25 February prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The number of daily volcanic earthquakes decreased during 3-4 March, and each day through 18 March only a few were recorded.
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-10 March that sent ash plumes to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed the ash plume drifting about 30 km ENE. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 9-10 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that during 8-12 March explosions at Karymsky generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 100 km E. A thermal anomaly was visible on 10 and 12 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Report for Bezymianny
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 12-15 March, and intense gas-end-steam emissions continued to rise from the crater. Hot avalanches originating from the top of the lava dome were visible in webcam images at night.
Late on 15 March KVERT reported that activity continued to intensify noting that the number of hot avalanches increased and ash plumes from the avalanches drifted about 100 km SE. The temperature of the thermal anomaly also increased. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). Seismic data suggested that a powerful explosive eruption began at 0511 on 16 March. At 0530 webcam images recorded explosions generating ash plumes that rose as high as 15 km (49,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10 km E. Thirty minutes later satellite images indicated continuing ash emissions rising to 15 km a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Ust-Kamchatsk Village (120 km ENE) during 0650-0730. An ash plume, 79 x 65 km in dimension, was also identified drifting ENE.
Strong explosions continued to produce ash plumes on 16 March, although they were lower-altitude (5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l.) and had a higher concentration of ash. The plumes drifted E. By 0930 ash plumes were rising to altitudes of 4-4.5 (13,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l.; ash plumes drifted 100 km E. A large ash plume, 120 x 130 km in dimension, continued to drift E at an altitude of 15 km. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). By 1307 on 16 March satellite images showed ash plumes drifting 650 km E. The report noted that ashfall was likely occurring in Nikolskoye (370 km ESE) on Bering Island.
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 8-15 March. Explosions on 9 March generated ash plumes that rose to 11 km (36,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 375 km NNW, causing KVERT to temporarily raise the Aviation Color Code to Red. Forceful gas-and-steam emissions containing variable amounts of ash rose to 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 10-11 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that each day during 13-19 March there were 43-175 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash. Crater incandescence was visible most nights. A short period of Strombolian activity commenced at 0500 on 13 March and lasted for 15 minutes, ejecting incandescent fragments onto the E and SE flanks. An explosion at 0510 generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected incandescent material 1.7 km away and onto the ESE flank. An ash plume from an explosion at 0730 rose 3.5 km and drifted NE. An explosion at 1430 on 14 March generated a dense ash plume that rose 5 km and drifted NNE. During an overflight of the crater on 15 March observers noted that lava dome #82 was gone, and that the inner crater was 300 m wide and 130 m deep. Explosions at 0255 and 0930 on 16 March produced ash plumes that rose 2-2.5 km and drifted NNE. Explosions were detected at 2206, 2321, and 2325. Gas, steam, and ash plumes from an event at 2138 on 18 March rose 4 km and drifted E. Incandescent fragments were ejected 2.5 km onto the flanks and set fire to some grasslands. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).
Report for Poas
OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 18 March an event at Poás produced a plume with minor ash content that rose 200 m above the crater rim.
Report for Reventador
IG reported that during 13-19 March periodic seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes sometimes rose higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and NW. Incandescent blocks were observed rolling 500-700 m down the flanks on a few of the days. Inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations.
Report for Villarrica
POVI reported that on 17 March sporadic Strombolian explosions at Villarrica ejected incandescent material about 25 m above the summit crater rim.