Report on Aira (Japan) — 4 September-10 September 2013
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
4 September-10 September 2013
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Report on Aira (Japan). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 4 September-10 September 2013. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
JMA reported that 15 explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 2-6 September. Incandescence from the crater was visible some nights. An explosion at 1100 on 4 September generated an ash plume that rose 2.8 km and drifted S, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Arimuracho (4 km SSE). Tephra 4 cm in diameter was confirmed in an area 3 km S, and tephra 1 cm in diameter was reported 10 km SSE.
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-10 September explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.3 km (8,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l., and most days drifted N, NE, E, S, and SW. On 6 and 8 September pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3-4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.; plumes drifted NE on 8 September.
Geological Summary. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)