Report on Santa Maria (Guatemala) — 20 May-26 May 2015
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 20 May-26 May 2015
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2015. Report on Santa Maria (Guatemala) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 20 May-26 May 2015. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
14.757°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3745 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
INSIVUMEH reported that a moderate explosion at Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated an ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted SW; ashfall was reported in La Florida and Monte Claro. During 23-24 May explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted SE and E. Ash fell in the Palajunoj area and Monte Claro. Small explosions and avalanches were detected during 24-26 May.
Geological Summary. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is part of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rise above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The sharp-topped, conical profile is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank, and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four vents, with activity progressing W towards the most recent, Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.