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Global Volcanism Program | Image GVP-11195

An ash plume rises from a new crater near the southern margin of Grímsvötn caldera in November 2004.  Grímsvötn, Iceland's most frequently active volcano in historical time, lies largely beneath the vast Vatnajökull icecap.  The 6 x 8 km wide caldera is the source of frequent jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) produced when melting raises the water level high enough to lift its ice dam.  Long NE-SW-trending fissure systems extend from the central volcano, including the noted Laki (Skaftar) fissure, which erupted in 1783. Photo by Freysteinn Sigmundsson, 2004 (Nordic Volcanological Center).

An ash plume rises from a new crater near the southern margin of Grímsvötn caldera in November 2004. Grímsvötn, Iceland's most frequently active volcano in historical time, lies largely beneath the vast Vatnajökull icecap. The 6 x 8 km wide caldera is the source of frequent jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) produced when melting raises the water level high enough to lift its ice dam. Long NE-SW-trending fissure systems extend from the central volcano, including the noted Laki (Skaftar) fissure, which erupted in 1783.

Photo by Freysteinn Sigmundsson, 2004 (Nordic Volcanological Center).


Grímsvötn