Global Volcanism Program | Image GVP-11883
Submarine eruptions at mid-ocean ridges produce pillow lavas, which form as lava slowly erupts from a fissure on the sea floor. The E-W-trending Galápagos Rift located north of the Galápagos Islands is an oceanic spreading ridge between the Cocos plate to the north and the Nazca plate to the south. A large area of hydrothermal vents along the crest of the ridge ENE of the Galápagos Islands was discovered in 1977, along with evidence of a recent eruption.
Image courtesy of NOAA Ocean Explorer, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.