Report on Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom) — 5 February-11 February 2007
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5 February-11 February 2007
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2007. Report on Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5 February-11 February 2007. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 915 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 27 April-8 May, visual observations suggested that lava-dome growth at Soufrière Hills continued at a reduced rate or ceased. Fresh deposits were evident at the head of Tyres Ghaut to the NW, the upper parts of Farrell's Plain and Tuitt's Ghaut to the N, and the upper parts of the Tar River Valley to the E. Pyroclastic activity was ongoing on the E and NE sides of the dome during 27 April-4 May and pyroclastic flows were observed in the Tar River Valley and on Farrell's plain, into Tuitt's Ghaut.
Geologic Background. The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. The volcano is flanked by Pleistocene complexes to the north and south. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east by edifice collapse, was formed about 2000 years ago as a result of the youngest of several collapse events producing submarine debris-avalanche deposits. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits, including those from an eruption that likely preceded the 1632 CE settlement of the island, allowing cultivation on recently devegetated land to near the summit. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but no historical eruptions were recorded until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.