Report on Tungurahua (Ecuador) — 7 November-13 November 2007
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 November-13 November 2007
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2007. Report on Tungurahua (Ecuador). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 November-13 November 2007. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
1.467°S, 78.442°W; summit elev. 5023 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
IG reported that although visual observations were limited due to cloud cover, ash-and-steam and ash plumes from Tungurahua rose to altitudes of 6-9 km (19,700-30,000 ft) a.s.l. during 7-13 November. Plumes mainly drifted W and SW and ashfall was reported from multiple areas downwind, including areas to the N and NW. Roars and "cannon shots" were also reported from several areas. A seismic station recorded a lahar on the SW flank that lasted about 30 minutes on 10 November. The next day, fumarolic activity on the NW edge of the crater rim was noted. Incandescent blocks propelled from the summit landed on the flanks and rolled a few hundred meters during 7-13 November. Incandescent blocks traveled 1 km down the flanks on 12 November.
Geologic Background. Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater, accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.