Report on Cleveland (United States) — 16 July-22 July 2008
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 16 July-22 July 2008
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2008. Report on Cleveland (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 16 July-22 July 2008. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
52.825°N, 169.944°W; summit elev. 1730 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
On 21 July, AVO raised the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange based on reports from pilots and observers on fishing boats. Reports from fishing boats indicated that an eruption started at about 1200 and ash near sea level may have drifted NW. Pilots reported that an ash-and-steam plume rose to altitudes of 4.6-5.2 km (15,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Observations of satellite imagery on 22 July revealed a steam plume possibly containing some ash drifting more than 50 km ESE at altitudes of 3-6.1 km (10,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. A strong thermal anomaly interpreted as a possible lava flow was also present in the imagery.
Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus, Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 it produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.