Report on Tungurahua (Ecuador) — 24 June-30 June 2009
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
24 June-30 June 2009
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2009. Report on Tungurahua (Ecuador). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 24 June-30 June 2009. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
1.467°S, 78.442°W; summit elev. 5023 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The IG reported that tremor and explosions from Tungurahua were detected by the seismic network almost daily during 23-30 June. A plume with low ash content rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 June and drifted W, and a small ash plume rose 200 m above the crater on 29 June. Cloud cover frequently prevented observations during the rest of the reporting period. Ashfall was occasionally reported in areas to the W and SW. Sounds resembling blocks rolling down the flanks and "cannon shot" noises were sometimes reported. On 23 June, lava fountains at the summit were observed and blocks ejected from the crater rolled as far as 1 km down the flanks. On 27 June, the seismic network possibly detected lahars in area drainages.
Geological Summary. Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater, accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.