Report on Fuego (Guatemala) — 15 January-21 January 2014
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 15 January-21 January 2014
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2014. Report on Fuego (Guatemala). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 15 January-21 January 2014. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-18 January explosions at Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 450-550 m above the crater. A lava flow in the Trinidad (S) drainage was 400 m long and generated avalanches. Other avalanches from the crater descended the Taniluya (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda (E) drainages. Explosions during 19-20 January produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m and drifted 10 km SE. Incandescent material was ejected 100-150 high and avalanches continued to descend multiple drainages.
Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.