Report on Karkar (Papua New Guinea) — 26 March-1 April 2014
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 26 March-1 April 2014
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2014. Report on Karkar (Papua New Guinea). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 26 March-1 April 2014. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
Papua New Guinea
4.649°S, 145.964°E; summit elev. 1839 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 March ash plumes from Karkar rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 50 km ENE and NW.
Geologic Background. Karkar is a 19 x 25 km wide, forest-covered island that is truncated by two nested summit calderas. The 5.5-km-wide outer caldera was formed during one or more eruptions, the last of which occurred 9000 years ago. The eccentric 3.2-km-wide inner caldera was formed sometime between 1500 and 800 years ago. Parasitic cones are present on the N and S flanks of this basaltic-to-andesitic volcano; a linear array of small cones extends from the northern rim of the outer caldera nearly to the coast. Most historical eruptions, which date back to 1643, have originated from Bagiai cone, a pyroclastic cone constructed within the steep-walled, 300-m-deep inner caldera. The floor of the caldera is covered by young, mostly unvegetated andesitic lava flows.