Report on Popocatepetl (Mexico) — 29 October-4 November 2014
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
29 October-4 November 2014
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2014. Report on Popocatepetl (Mexico). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 October-4 November 2014. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
CENAPRED reported that during 29 October-4 November seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and small amounts of ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed most nights. The seismic network detected nine explosions during 29-30 October and two explosions on 31 October; ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted SW. Ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted E on 1 November and SW on 3 November. Periodic ejections of incandescent tephra landed 600 m away on the E and N crater flanks on 4 November. Ash plumes rose 1 km. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.
Geological Summary. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.