Report on Santa Maria (Guatemala) — 28 January-3 February 2015
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 January-3 February 2015
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2015. Report on Santa Maria (Guatemala). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 January-3 February 2015. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
14.757°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3745 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
INSIVUMEH reported that during 31 January-1 February explosions from Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted WSW, causing ashfall in the Palajunoj area. The lava flow on the SE flank was incandescent and produced avalanches that descended the SE and E flanks. An explosion on 13 January generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted SW. Block avalanches originated from Caliente cone. Explosions the next day produced plumes that drifted SW. Explosions during 2-3 February generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted SE. The lava flow remained active.
Geologic Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.