Report on Masaya (Nicaragua) — 27 January-2 February 2016
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
27 January-2 February 2016
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2016. Report on Masaya (Nicaragua). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 27 January-2 February 2016. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
11.985°N, 86.165°W; summit elev. 594 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
INETER reported that on 27 January the two lava lakes in Masaya's Santiago crater were smaller and sound waves generated by the activity were at moderate levels. Emissions drifted W and SW. The next day emissions decreased and the lava lake in the SW vent was less visible. On 29 January both lava lakes were again prominent, and a third vent opened in the SE part of the crater floor.
Geological Summary. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras caldera and is itself a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The Nindirí and Masaya cones, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6,500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and there is a lake at the far eastern end. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals have caused health hazards and crop damage.