Report on Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand) — 3 June-9 June 2020
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
3 June-9 June 2020
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2020. Report on Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 3 June-9 June 2020. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 294 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
On 9 June GeoNet reported that a short-lived gas pulse and accompanying minor uplift in the vent area at Whakaari/White Island was recorded the previous week. The activity was likely linked to new magma emplaced at a shallow depth. High temperatures (around 450 degrees Celsius) at the vent area continued to be recorded. A decline in gas flux was recorded on 3 June, lower than the high levels detected on 28 May, suggesting that the increase was short-lived. Recent rainfall increased steam emissions and some water has ponded on the crater floor. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Geological Summary. The uninhabited Whakaari/White Island is the 2 x 2.4 km emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes. The SE side of the crater is open at sea level, with the recent activity centered about 1 km from the shore close to the rear crater wall. Volckner Rocks, sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NW. Descriptions of volcanism since 1826 have included intermittent moderate phreatic, phreatomagmatic, and Strombolian eruptions; activity there also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries caused rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project. Explosive activity in December 2019 took place while tourists were present, resulting in many fatalities. The official government name Whakaari/White Island is a combination of the full Maori name of Te Puia o Whakaari ("The Dramatic Volcano") and White Island (referencing the constant steam plume) given by Captain James Cook in 1769.