Report on Aira (Japan) — 3 June-9 June 2020
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
3 June-9 June 2020
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2020. Report on Aira (Japan). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 3 June-9 June 2020. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
JMA reported that during 1-8 June incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was sometimes visible at night. An explosion at 0259 on 4 June produced a plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected material almost 2 km away from the crater. Vibrations from the explosion were detected at the Seto Observatory, 4 km from the crater. During field surveys on 4 and 8 June deposits of tephra (up to 5 cm in diameter) were observed in areas 4-5 km E, and large blocks had fallen 3 km SW; craters created from the impact of the blocks were about 6 m in dimeter and 2 m deep. An explosion at 0130 on 5 June generated a plume that rose 3.7 km above the rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Geological Summary. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.