Report on Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — 30 September-6 October 2015
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 30 September-6 October 2015
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2015. Report on Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 30 September-6 October 2015. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
Nevado del Ruiz
4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 28 September-5 October seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was characterized by long-period earthquakes and short-duration volcanic tremor associated with gas-and-ash emissions. Earthquakes occurred at depths between 0.6 and 7 km. The largest event was recorded at 0138 on 4 October; the event was a local M 1.4, occurring at a depth of 4 km. Minor thermal anomalies over the crater were detected in satellite images on 28 and 30 September. Significant amounts of water-vapor and gas were emitted from the crater during the week. On 29 September a gas-and-ash plume rose 2 km above the crater and drifted mainly NW. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").
Geological Summary. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.