Report on Kilauea (United States) — 29 June-5 July 2016
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
29 June-5 July 2016
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2016. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 June-5 July 2016. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
HVO reported that during 29 June-5 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. A lava flow originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank continued to advance and spread SE. Webcams recorded bright incandescence from several skylights along the upper part of the tube system supplying lava to the front part of the flow, and also from the flow field. By 29 June the toe of the lava flow had reached the base of the pali (burning vegetation in the adjacent kipuka), and by 3 July it had advanced 690 m onto the coastal plain, 2.6 km from the ocean.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.