Report on Kilauea (United States) — 13 July-19 July 2016
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 13 July-19 July 2016
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2016. Report on Kilauea (United States) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 13 July-19 July 2016. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
HVO reported that during 13-19 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to advance across the coastal plain. By midday on 15 July the lava flow was about 870 m from the ocean, advancing only 60 m since 12 July. A satellite image acquired on 17 July showed that the flow front was 820 m from the ocean. By the evening of 18 July the flow tip had stalled but breakouts were active a few hundred meters upslope.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.