Report on Piton de la Fournaise (France) — 1 February-7 February 2017
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
1 February-7 February 2017
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2017. Report on Piton de la Fournaise (France). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 1 February-7 February 2017. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
Piton de la Fournaise
21.244°S, 55.708°E; summit elev. 2632 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
OVPF reported that seismicity and inflation at Piton de la Fournaise significantly increased on 2 January. Based on seismic data, an eruption began at 1940 on 31 January. Visual observations on 1 February confirmed that the active vent was located about 1 km SE of Château Fort and about 2.5 km ENE of Piton de Bert. Lava fountains rose 20-50 m above the 10-m-high vent, and ‘a’a lava flows branched and traveled 750 m. Two other cracks had opened at the beginning of the eruption but were no longer active. Tremor levels decreased in the early hours of the eruption; RSAM values then fluctuated at mid-range, and lava-fountain heights were variable (between 20-50 m). On 2 February two lava fountains at the vent were visible, and lava flows had traveled an additional 500 m E. The vent was 128 m long and about 35 m high at the highest part. The next day RSAM levels were more stable, at a value which was half of what it was at the beginning of the eruption. On 4 February OVPF noted that significant fluctuations of volcanic tremor were detected for more than 24 hours, with intensity levels reaching those observed at the onset of the eruption. Higher levels of seismicity continued through 7 February. Poor weather conditions prevented visual observations during 4-7 February.
Geological Summary. Piton de la Fournaise is a massive basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three scarps formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5,000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping, leaving caldera-sized embayments open to the E and SE. Numerous pyroclastic cones are present on the floor of the scarps and their outer flanks. Most recorded eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest scarp, which is about 9 km wide and about 13 km from the western wall to the ocean on the E side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures outside the scarps.