Report on Nevados de Chillan (Chile) — 7 August-13 August 2019
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
7 August-13 August 2019
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2019. Report on Nevados de Chillan (Chile). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 August-13 August 2019. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
Nevados de Chillan
36.868°S, 71.378°W; summit elev. 3180 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 8-13 August multiple explosions at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater generated gas-and-ash plumes and ejected incandescent material around the crater. These explosions were recorded at 0438 on 8 August, at 2223 on 10 August, at 1831 and 1952 on 12 August, and at 0427, 1058, and 1116 on 13 August. Eruption plumes rose as high as 765 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián; on 13 August they stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.
Geological Summary. The compound volcano of Nevados de Chillán is one of the most active of the Central Andes. Three late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes were constructed along a NNW-SSE line within three nested Pleistocene calderas, which produced ignimbrite sheets extending more than 100 km into the Central Depression of Chile. The dominantly andesitic Cerro Blanco (Volcán Nevado) stratovolcano is located at the NW end of the massif. Volcán Viejo (Volcán Chillán), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The Volcán Nuevo lava-dome complex formed during 1906-1945 on the NW flank of Viejo. The Volcán Arrau dome complex was then constructed on the SE side of Volcán Nuevo between 1973 and 1986, and eventually exceeded its height. Smaller domes or cones are present in the 5-km valley between the two major edifices.