Report on Asosan (Japan) — 20 October-26 October 2021
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
20 October-26 October 2021
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2021. Report on Asosan (Japan). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 20 October-26 October 2021. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
32.884°N, 131.104°E; summit elev. 1592 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
JMA characterized the eruption at Asosan that occurred at 1143 on 20 October as medium-sized. The event ejected blocks 900 m S, produced pyroclastic flows that descended 1.3 km W, and generated an ash plume that rose 3.5 km above the crater rim. Very small eruptive events were recorded during 1244-1410. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 2,500 tons per day on 21 October. White plumes rose 900 m from the crater during 21-22 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Geological Summary. The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Nakadake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations.