Report on Kilauea (United States) — 10 November-16 November 2021
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
10 November-16 November 2021
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2021. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 10 November-16 November 2021. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued at a vent in the lower W wall of Halema`uma`u Crater. By 9 November the total volume of erupted lava was an estimated 27 million cubic meters. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,600 tonnes per day on 9 November. Spatter and ponded lava in the vent were visible during 9-16 November; lava entered the lake through a short channel in the E part of the W wall cone, feeding the lake which had risen 60 m since 29 September. The active area of the lava lake had increased during the week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.