Report on Great Sitkin (United States) — 2 February-8 February 2022
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
2 February-8 February 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Great Sitkin (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 2 February-8 February 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
52.076°N, 176.13°W; summit elev. 1740 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 2-8 February, though cloudy conditions often prevented satellite and webcam views. Seismicity remained slightly elevated. The flow field expanded with up to 100 m of advancement of the S, W, and N flank lava flows. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images. A steam plume was visible in webcam images during 5-6 February. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Geological Summary. The Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 m. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the late-19th century.