Report on Gamalama (Indonesia) — 7 September-13 September 2022
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 September-13 September 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Gamalama (Indonesia) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 September-13 September 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
0.81°N, 127.3322°E; summit elev. 1714 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
PVMBG reported that the number of deep volcanic earthquakes at Gamalama increased during the morning of 14 September and nine volcanic earthquakes were recorded. A white-and-brown plume of variable density rose as much as 250 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius.
Geological Summary. Gamalama is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera, and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the extensive documentation of activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano; the S-flank Ngade maar formed after about 14,500–13,000 cal. BP (Faral et al., 2022). Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63.