Report on Home Reef (Tonga) — 21 September-27 September 2022
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 21 September-27 September 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Home Reef (Tonga) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 21 September-27 September 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
18.992°S, 174.775°W; summit elev. -10 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The Tonga Geological Services reported that the new island at Home Reef that emerged from the ocean on 10 September continued to grow through 27 September. The eruption continued at variable intensities, mainly producing daily plumes of gas and steam that rose no higher than 2 km above sea level. During 0040-0250 on 25 September steam-and-ash plumes rose 2-4 km a.s.l. and drifted 30 km W, S, and SE. At 0030 on 27 September an ash plume rose 6-8 km a.s.l. and drifted 25 km SSE. The island was surrounded by plumes of discolored water. Mariners were advised to stay 4 km away from the volcano.
Geological Summary. Home Reef, a submarine volcano midway between Metis Shoal and Late Island in the central Tonga islands, was first reported active in the mid-19th century, when an ephemeral island formed. An eruption in 1984 produced a 12-km-high eruption plume, large amounts of floating pumice, and an ephemeral 500 x 1,500 m island, with cliffs 30-50 m high that enclosed a water-filled crater. In 2006 an island-forming eruption produced widespread dacitic pumice rafts that drifted as far as Australia. Another island was built during a September-October 2022 eruption.