Report on Kilauea (United States) — 11 January-17 January 2023
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 11 January-17 January 2023
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2023. Report on Kilauea (United States) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 11 January-17 January 2023. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
HVO reported that lava continued to erupt from vents on the central E portion of Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater floor during 10-17 January. Activity was concentrated in a large lava lake, covering about 12 hectares in the E half of the crater on 10 January. One dominant lava fountain, 6-7 m high, was active within this area. Lava flows built up the margins of the lake, causing the lake to be perched; small overflows along the margins were visible during 13-16 January. A smaller area of lava was active within the basin in the W half of the crater that had been the focus of activity during 2021-2022. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.