Report on Ubinas (Peru) — 6 September-12 September 2023
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 6 September-12 September 2023
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2023. Report on Ubinas (Peru) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 6 September-12 September 2023. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
16.355°S, 70.903°W; summit elev. 5672 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that the eruption at Ubinas continued at low-to-moderate levels during 4-10 September. There were daily averages of 183 volcano-tectonic earthquakes indicating rock fracturing and 27 long-period earthquakes signifying the movement of gas and magma. Gas-and-steam emissions rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifted as far as 5 km NE, E, and SE; no explosions or ash plumes were recorded during the week. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the crater.
Geological Summary. A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Perú's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. It is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I was followed by construction of Ubinas II beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank about 3,700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits include one of Holocene age about 1,000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.