Report on Papandayan (Indonesia) — 14 July-20 July 2004
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 14 July-20 July 2004
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Papandayan (Indonesia). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 14 July-20 July 2004. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
7.32°S, 107.73°E; summit elev. 2665 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
DVGHM reported that seismic and volcanic activity were at heightened levels on 17 July at Papandayan. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased on 13 July from 1-3 per day to 7-9, then further increased to 57 earthquakes on 16 July. The temperature at Baru crater I increased from 84 to 88.5 °C, and the temperature of Baru crater II rose from 89 to 102 °C. The Alert Level was raised from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and visits to the crater were prohibited.
Geologic Background. Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields. The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the north gives a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have created an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas. A sulfur-encrusted fumarole field occupies historically active Kawah Mas ("Golden Crater"). After its first historical eruption in 1772, in which collapse of the NE flank produced a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3000 people, only small phreatic eruptions had occurred prior to an explosive eruption that began in November 2002.