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Larderello, one of the world's most productive geothermal areas, is located in the southern part of the Tuscany region of Italy. This extensive solfatara field lies in an area underlain by sediments of Eocene-to-Pliocene age. The geothermal activity is considered to be related to a cooling granitic pluton of Pliocene age beneath sedimentary and metamorphic rocks ranging from Paleozoic to Tertiary age, although the area is cut by faults with hydrothermal mineralization related to Pliocene-to-Quaternary Tuscan magmatism. The only surficial morphological manifestation of volcanism is a series of about a dozen explosion craters 30-250 m in diameter. The Lago Vecchienna crater, now filled by a 250-m-wide lake, ejected blocks and ash during a phreatic eruption in about 1282 CE (Marinelli, 1969).
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1282 (in or before)||Unknown||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations||Lago Vecchienna|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Lardarello | Larderello-Travale|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Steam pours from cooling towers at Larderello, one of the world's most productive geothermal areas. Larderello is located in the Tuscany region of Italy, at a solfatara field in an area underlain by sediments of Eocene-to-Pliocene age. The only surficial morphological manifestation of volcanism is a series of about a dozen explosion craters 30-250 m in diameter. The youngest of these, the Lago Vecchienna crater, ejected blocks and ash during a phreatic eruption in about 1282 AD and is now filled by a 250-m-wide lake.
Photo by Giuseppina Kysar, 1985 (Smithsonian Institution).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Bellani S, Brogi A, Lazzarotto A, Liotta D, Ranalli G, 2004. Heat flow, deep temperatures and extensional structures in the Larderello geothermal field (Italy): constraints on geothermal fluid flow. J Volc Geotherm Res, 132: 15-29.
Boyce A J, Fulignati P, Sbrana A, 2003. Deep hydrothermal circulation in a granite intrusion beneath Larderello geothermal area (Italy): constraints from mineralogy, fluid inclusions and stable isotopes. J Volc Geotherm Res, 126: 243-262.
Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.
Keller W D, 1946. The natural steam at Larderello, Italy. J Geol, 54: 327-334.
Krafft M, 1974. Guide des Volcans d'Europe. Neuchatel: Delachaux & Niestle, 412 p.
Marinelli G, 1969. Some geological data on the geothermal areas of Tuscany. Bull Volc, 33: 319-333.
Petrucci E, Sheppard S M F, Turi B, 1993. Water/rock interaction in the Larderello geothermal field (southern Tuscany, Italy): an 18O/16O and D/H isotope study. J Volc Geotherm Res, 59: 145-160.
Ruggieri G, Gianelli G, 1999. Multi-stage fluid circulation in a hydraulic fracture breccia of the Larderello geothermal field (Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 90: 241-261.
Villa I M, Riggieri G, Puxeddu M, Bertini G, 2006. Geochronology and isotope transport systematics in a subsurface granite from the Larderello-Travale geothermal system (Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 152: 20-50.