Activity for the week of 20 December-26 December 2000
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Eastern Java (Indonesia)
| 7.942°S, 112.95°E
| Elevation 2329 m
The VSI reported that during 12-18 December explosion and tremor activity at the volcano increased in comparison to the previous week. Minor explosions sent ash to 500-600 m above the crater rim. In addition, continuous tremor and a large number of explosion earthquakes (2,375) were recorded. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1 to 4). Tengger caldera has been active for approximately one month; therefore any further Tengger activity will be reported in the "Continuous Activity" section.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3295 m
Volcanic activity at Etna was low during December, with low gas emission at the SE Crater throughout the month and a few isolated Strombolian events at the Bocca Nuova crater in mid-December.
Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
| Siau Island (Indonesia)
| 2.781°N, 125.407°E
| Elevation 1797 m
The VSI reported that during 12-18 December, activity increased at Karangetang in comparison to the previous week. A thin plume continued to be emitted from the main crater and Crater II, but it rose higher than last week: up to 150 m above the summit. A "red flame," possibly indicating illumination of the plume by lava fountaining or incandescent material at the summit, was observed rising up to 75 m above the summit. Overall seismic activity decreased in comparison to the previous week. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity was at background levels at Karymsky until 0905 to 0915 on 20 December when shallow earthquakes registered under the volcano were accompanied by short-lived explosions. At 2150 the same day, a pilot confirmed the presence of ash at the summit of the volcano and mud traces from melting snow on the edifice slopes. On 21 and 22 December (the end of KVERT's report period) seismicity was above background levels. The Concern Color Code was raised from Green to Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During the week surface lava flows continued to flow down Pulama pali, with the lava flow front more than 2 km inland from the sea. Overall, seismic tremor was weak to moderate near Pu`u `O`o and was weak beneath Kilauea caldera. The tiltmeters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
Volcanic activity at Popocatépetl decreased in comparison to last week. The Washington VAAC reported that during 21 to 25 December there were intermittent emissions of mostly steam. In addition, several small-to-moderate explosive events occurred during the week; at 1555 on 24 December ash was erupted to ~9 km a.s.l. and then blown to the E; at 1045 on 25 December ash was erupted to between 5.5 and 7.6 km a.s.l., blown to the NE, and deposited less than 5 km from the summit; and moderate exhalations occurred at 0111 and 0631 on 27 December that sent ash up to 7.6 and 9.8 km, respectively. On 26 December CENAPRED reported that beginning on 24 December the volcano entered a new phase of activity. Moderate explosions were expected to continue for several days or weeks until the lava dome in the summit crater is destroyed. CENAPRED scientists determined that there was decreased likelihood of a large eruption. Most of the 41,000 residents near the volcano, who were evacuated beginning on 15 December, were permitted to return to their homes. The evacuees were warned to remain alert for further activity. The director of CENAPRED, Robert Quaas, told journalists at a press conference on 26 December that, "The volcano could continue to launch incandescent fragments as far as 5 km and could provoke a moderate rain of cooled fragments as far away as 10 km, because of events related to the destruction of the lava dome." The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, but the restricted area was reduced from 13 to 12 km. For more information about the present state of the volcano and the return of evacuees to their homes refer to CENAPRED's 26 December Bulletin.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Reuters, Associated Press, Notimex
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that much like the previous week, the character of the volcanic activity did not change during 15-22 December. On 15 and 20 December weak seismicity was registered at the volcano and at 2105 on 15 December a seismic event was likely accompanied by a gas-and-ash explosion that sent a cloud to an inferred height of 2 km a.s.l. On 20 December a gas-and-steam plume rose 200-300 m above the crater. KVERT lowered the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
The Washington VAAC reported that throughout the week low-level (up to ~2 km) ash clouds that were produced by rockfalls, and periodic hot spot activity were visible on GOES-8 imagery.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
The IG reported that on 21 December an ash cloud was observed over the summit of Tungurahua at a height of ~5.8 km a.s.l. According to the Washington VAAC, the ash was not visible on GOES-8 imagery.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.