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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 24 November-30 November 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Iliwerung Lomblen Island (Indonesia) New
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Apr 1 New
Pinatubo Luzon (Philippines) New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) 2000 Feb 28 (in or before) Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2013 Sep 3 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Grimsvotn Iceland Continuing
Heard Kerguelen Plateau Continuing
Katmai United States Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
La Palma Spain 2021 Sep 19 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nyiragongo DR Congo 2002 May 17 (?) Continuing
Pavlof United States 2021 Aug 5 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) 2021 Feb 2 ± 2 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu 1774 Jul 2 (in or before) ± 182 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 17,246 individual reports over 1,091 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 316 different volcanoes.

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Agung Concepcion Ijen Little Sitkin Peuet Sague Spurr
Ahyi Copahue Iliamna Llaima Pinatubo St. Helens
Aira Cotopaxi Iliwerung Loihi Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Akan Cuicocha Inielika Lokon-Empung Poas Sulu Range
Alaid Cumbal Ioto Lopevi Popocatepetl Sumbing
Alu-Dalafilla Dabbahu Irazu Machin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambae Dempo Iya Makian Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambang Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Anatahan Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Aniakchak Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kambalny Marapi Raung Talang
Antuco Egon Kanaga Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Martin Reventador Tanaga
Arenal Epi Karangetang Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Askja Erta Ale Karthala Mauna Loa Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asosan Etna Karymsky Mayon Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Atka Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi McDonald Islands Rotorua Telica
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Melimoyu Ruang Tenerife
Avachinsky Fernandina Katmai Merapi Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Awu Fogo Kavachi Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fonualei Kelimutu Misti, El Sabancaya Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Miyakejima Sakar Tofua
Azumayama Fourpeaked Kerinci Momotombo Salak Tokachidake
Bagana Fuego Ketoi Monowai San Cristobal Tolbachik
Balbi Fujisan Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Miguel Toliman
Bamus Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Tongariro
Banda Api Galeras Kikai Mutnovsky Sangay Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galunggung Kilauea Myojinsho Sangeang Api Turrialba
Barren Island Gamalama Kirishimayama Nabro Santa Ana Ubinas
Batur Gamkonora Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gareloi Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gaua Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gorely Korovin Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Great Sitkin Koryaksky Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Grimsvotn Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Cameroon Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Cayambe Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chaiten Hekla La Palma Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Osorno Siple Yasur
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Panarea Sorikmarapi
Ciremai Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Papandayan Sotara
Cleveland Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Parker Soufriere Hills
Colima Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colo Ibu Lewotolok Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Iliwerung
A submarine eruption at Iliwerung was observed during 28-29 November, prompting PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 0-4). Residents reported seeing the sea surface, 30 m from the shore to the S, bubbling up to heights of less than 1 m beginning at 2152 on 28 November; the activity lasted about an hour. Eruptive activity at the sea surface was again observed at 0517 on 29 November. An observer described bubbling water and a plume rising about 100 m a few hours later, at 0829, though they noted that the activity was about 1 km S of the Hobal submarine vent (about 3 km E of the summit), the site of multiple eruptions since 1973. PVMBG warned residents to stay away from the coastline and the water nearest to the activity.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that during 18-20 and 25 November explosions at Karymsky generated ash plumes that rose as high as 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 370 km NE and NW. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images during 18-19 and 22 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Pinatubo
PHIVOLCS reported that a weak phreatic explosion at Pinatubo was recorded during 1209-1213 on 30 November. The event was likely drive by shallow hydrothermal processes based on very low seismicity recorded during the previous few days, low diffuse carbon dioxide flux from the lake, and a notable infrasound signal. A plume mostly comprised of steam was seen rising above weather clouds within a few minutes of the end of the event. The Tokyo VAAC stated that the plume rose to 13.4 km (44,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W based on satellite data.
Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Ulawun
The Darwin VAAC raised the Aviation Color Code for Ulawun to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) on 30 November based on reports of unrest by local observers. The reports described increased seismicity, steam emissions, and a small ash eruption the day before.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 22-29 November. An eruptive event at 1509 on 25 November generated a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was slightly high at 1,200 tons per day on 26 November; sulfur dioxide emissions had been generally high since late September 2020. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Bagana
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 November ash plumes from Bagana rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW based on satellite and wind model data.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Ebeko
On 26 November KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code for Ebeko to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale), noting that a thermal anomaly was last identified on 25 October and eruptive activity was last recorded on 9 November. Gas-and-steam emission continued to be visible.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that gas emissions from Etna’s summit craters were visible during 15-21 November, though weather clouds sometimes prevented webcam observations. At 1116 on 20 November an explosion at Northeast Crater (NEC) produced diffuse ash-and-gas plumes that quickly dissipated near the summit.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Great Sitkin
According to AVO satellite images acquired on 23 November showed that lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued, though at a low rate. Lava continued to fill the summit crater and the flows on the flanks advanced short distances. During 24-30 November seismicity remained slightly above background levels. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically detected. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Grimsvotn
On 24 November Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) reported that the ice sheet in Grímsvötn's caldera had subsided 60 cm in the previous few days and the rate of subsidence had accelerated in the last day. By 29 November the ice had sunk a total of 5 m and by 1 December the subsidence totaled 10 m. Data indicated that water had likely begun exiting the caldera and will result in a jökulhlaup (glacial outburst flood) that will cause flooding conditions in drainages. Water levels in the Gígjukvísl drainage rose overnight during 30 November-1 December.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Heard
Thermal satellite images of Heard Island’s Big Ben volcano showed thermal anomalies of varying intensity over the summit area or on the NW and W flanks on 4, 11, 14, and 21 November. Weather clouds prevented views of the volcano on eight other acquisitions during the month. On 11 November four anomalies on the NW flank formed a “v” shape open to the NW, possibly indicating a branched lava flow. On 21 November the anomaly was on the W flank and possible emissions from the E and SE margins of it drifted SE.
Source: Sentinel Hub
Report for Katmai
AVO reported that on 25 November strong winds in the vicinity of Katmai and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes blew unconsolidated ash SE over Shelikof Strait and Kodiak Island at an altitude up to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. The ash was originally deposited during the Novarupta eruption in 1912. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Normal and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued at a vent in the lower W wall of Halema`uma`u Crater during 24-30 November. The vent contained ponded and sometimes spattering lava that fed the lake through the E part of the W wall cone. The size of the active part of the lake varied, and lava periodically oozed from the cooler, outer margins of the lake onto the lowest of the exposed down-dropped caldera floor blocks. Earthquake activity remained below background levels and volcanic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate had averaged 3,000 tonnes per day in recent weeks; on 23 November the rate was higher at 6,400 tonnes per day and on 29 November it was below the average at 1,200 tonnes per day. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for La Palma
The eruption at La Palma continued during 24-30 November, characterized by Strombolian explosions and lava fountaining/jetting from multiple existing and new vents, advancing and sometimes branching lava flows, and daily ash emissions. The eruption began on 19 September and had been active for 70 days by 28 November. Volcanic tremor levels were low, though during 28-29 November levels fluctuated and were sometimes intense. Seismicity persisted at variable but elevated levels, with earthquake locations distributed at depths of 10-15 km and 30-40 km. Deeper seismicity decreased to low levels by 27 November while mid-level seismicity intensified through the week. The largest earthquake was a M 5 recorded at 0935 on 29 November at a depth of 36 km. A M 4.2 earthquake at a depth of 13 km was the largest event at mid-levels since the eruption began.

Several vents in the main cone continued to effuse lava, eject tephra, and emit ash-and-gas plumes. Lava moved W through pre-existing lava channels, lava tubes, over older flows, and over new ground, increasing the flow field that consists of overlapping flows (numbered 1-11) and two lava deltas. During 23-25 November flows 4, 5, and 7 at the N end of the flow field continued to widen and advance, filling in gaps between the flows, and fed the N delta. Flows 1, 2, and 9 minimally fed the S delta. There was also an increasing number of active flows on the flow field as lava overflowed some channel margins or broke out of tubes. At around 0900 on 25 November the lava effusion rate increased at main crater vents, and around 1100 two small E-W fissures opened less than 1 km S of the main cone. The easternmost vent produced a fast-moving lava flow that traveled along the S margin of flow 10 and around the S side of Montaña Cogote. The flow advanced through the Las Manchas cemetery and inundated parts of a solar power plant; the newly covered areas were part of the exclusion zone and had already been evacuated. The flow rate slowed to about 25 m per hour and joined flow 11 by 26 November. An overflow of lava SW of flow 3 produced a small branch oriented laterally the flow margin. Flow 7 widened during 26-27 November as it continued to be fed.

New vents opened on the NE flank of the main cone at around 0300 on 28 November, producing fluid lava flows that traveled N and NW through the Tacande area and crossed the LP-212 road. The opening of the new vents was followed by landslides on the NW flank of the cone. In a video taken at 1145 lava fountains rose from one of the vents while another ejected tephra. Dense billowing ash plumes rose from the main crater. Video taken at 1050 on 29 November showed lava flows transporting large blocks downslope. Another video showed lava flowing at a rate of about 1 m per second. By noon the vents in the main cone became notably less active and remained only intermittently active through 30 November. Several streams of lava from the new vents continued to advance NW and then W along older flows and split into two branches. One branch traveled through tubes and fed flows 4, 5, and 7 between Montaña de Todoque and Montaña de La Laguna and the other descended towards flow 8 (the most northern flow). Flows inundated previously untouched forest and agricultural land. By 30 November the width of the flow field had grown to 3.35 km and lava covered an estimated 11.34 square kilometers. The number of people that had evacuated and were staying in hotels had increased to 537.

Gas and ash emissions again impacted island residents. Suspended ash and high concentrations of volcanic gases triggered a few air-quality alerts mostly affecting the W part of the island; authorities warned residents of some affected areas to stay indoors. Essential personnel were occasionally barred from entering the exclusion zones to irrigate crops and remove ash from streets and buildings. Heavy rains during 25-26 November triggered warnings from authorities to stay away from steep slopes and drainages due to the possibility of lahars. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.8 km and drifted E during 24-26 November, and continued to deposit ash at La Palma airport. By 27 November winds had shifted and the ash at the airport had been removed, allowing it to open for the first time since 20 November. Ash plumes rose 1.4-3.5 km and drifted SW and SSW during the rest of the week. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued an overall downward trend during 23-26 November, though heavy rain sometimes prevented ground-based measurements. The trend was broken on 27 and 28 November with values of 30,000-49,999 tons per day, characterized as “very high.” During 29-30 November emission values were “high” or between values of 1,000 and 29,999 tons per day.
Sources: Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN), Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), Gobierno de Canaries
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 24-30 November. Daily white-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit. Crater incandescence was visible each day, with eruptions accompanied by rumbling and roaring sounds. Incandescent material was ejected 300-500 m E and SE from the vent during 24-25 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported no notable morphological changes to Merapi’s SW lava dome, located just below the SW rim, or the dome in the summit crater during 19-25 November. The estimated dome volumes remained stable at 1.61 million cubic meters for the SW dome and almost 2.93 million cubic meters for the summit dome. As many as 110 lava avalanches traveled a maximum of 2 km SW. One pyroclastic flow traveled 1.8 km SW on 20 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-5 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nyiragongo
OVG reported that active vents on the crater floor of Nyiragongo were seen ejecting spatter on 27 November.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof continued during 23-30 November, focused at a vent on the upper SE flank. Low lava fountaining that had begun on 14 November continued to construct an unstable cone over the vent. Hot rubbly lava flows from the cone traveled a few hundred meters down the flanks, melting snow and ice that resulted in narrow lahars which traveled several kilometers down the flanks; satellite data from 25 November showed a new debris flow extending downslope from the end of the lava flow. Seismicity remained elevated; a few small explosions were detected during 24-26 and 28-30 November. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically observed in satellite data, though cloud cover sometimes prevented observations. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Reventador
IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 24-30 November. Gas-and-ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose higher than 1.3 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly NW, W, SW, and S. Crater incandescence was visible nightly, and incandescent blocks were observed rolling 400 m down the flanks in all directions on most nights.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Sangay
IG reported that thermal anomalies, persistent at Sangay since July, suggested continuous emission of lava flows and hot pyroclastic material from summit crater vents. The SE drainage, which had been scoured and widened by persistent pyroclastic flows during August 2019 to March 2020, had only widened from about 600 m to about 650 m during March-October. An increased number of explosions and an inflationary trend were recorded during the previous few weeks. Strombolian activity began to dominate the eruptive style in July, though on 17 November the number of explosions increased to two per minute and remained at that level at least through 23 November. Most of the explosions were small and were recorded both by the seismic and acoustic networks. Though slight inflation began to be detected in June 2021 the trend was more pronounced in recent weeks. InSAR satellite data showed an inflationary trend of up to 5 cm per year all around the volcano except the E flank between 5 January 2020 and 13 November 2021. The sulfur dioxide emission rate had remained stable and low since June, with values less than 1,000 tons per day.

Daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified by the Washington VAAC or in IG webcam views during 23-29 November. The plumes rose 970-2,100 m above the volcano and drifted NW, W, SW, and S. Daily thermal anomalies over the volcano were often visible in satellite data. Strombolian activity at summit vents and SE-descending lava flows were visible during 23-24 November. A new vent was possibly identified on the upper W flank. Two lahars were detected by the seismic network on 25 November.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 24-30 November. Daily minor explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data. Weather clouds obscured satellite and webcam views of the volcano on most days; small ash plumes rising no higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. were sometimes visible during breaks in the cloud cover but were likely emitted daily. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 19-26 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that during 15-28 November activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity from five vents in Area N (North Crater area) and four vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area). Explosions from Area N vents (N1 and N2) averaged 6-17 events per hour; explosions from two vents in the N1 vent ejected lapilli and bombs 80 m high and explosions at three N2 vents ejected material 80-150 m high. Spattering at N2 was sometimes intense. No explosions occurred at the S1 and C vents in Area C-S; explosions at the two S2 vents occurred at a rate of 4-9 per hour and ejected coarse material as high as 80 m. Drone footage acquired on 20 November captured two C-S vents ejecting shreds of lava and one emitting gas. A 60-m-line of fumaroles, oriented NNW, were situated on the Sciara del Fuoco, down-flank of Area N. During the morning of 21 November intense spattering occurred at a vent between N1 and N2 produced a rheomorphic lava flow, formed by the accumulated spatter, on the upper middle part of the Sciara del Fuoco. At 0751 on 25 November lava blocks originating from a hornito in the N2 area began rolling downslope. Within a few hours a lava flow was visible in the same area; blocks from the end of the flow descended the Sciara del Fuoco, reaching the coastline. The rate of lava effusion varied during 25-26 November; the flow had begun cooling by the evening of 27 November.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that during 22-29 November about 41 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.7 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks 500-800 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Yasur
The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) and the Wellington VAAC reported that multiple gas-and-ash emissions at Yasur were visible in webcam images on 27 November rising 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W. Weather clouds prevented satellite observations of the emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4).
Sources: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)