Activity for the week of 3 January-9 January 2001
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Luzon (Philippines)
| 13.257°N, 123.685°E
| Elevation 2462 m
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) stated in the 09 January Mayon Bulletin that major monitored parameters strongly suggest that activity is rapidly progressing beyond the usual background conditions at the volcano. Reports by the Ligñon Hill Observatory in Legazpi City disclosed that lava dome growth was occurring at the volcano's summit, with coinciding, slight ground tilt. In addition, voluminous volcanic gases were released from the summit crater, and there was a significant increase in earthquake occurrences for about a week that they believe is related to magma ascent. As of 9 January, near-continuous cloud cover prevented observations of the dome to determine if lava was present in the crater. Because reactivation of the volcano may eventually lead to the production of lava flows or pyroclastic flows, PHIVOLCS put the volcano at Alert Level 2 (increased and sustained volcanic unrest) and maintained the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.
Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press, Reuters
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
According to HVO, lava flows continued to travel down the Pulama Pali and across the coastal flat. The flows progressed no farther than ~2 km inland from the sea as they had for the previous two weeks. By the end of the report week, surface lava flows were sparse, and only incandescent patches remained on the Pali and coastal flats. During 6 to 8 January, Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o went through periods of deflation and inflation that were accompanied by increased volcanic tremor. Refer to the US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory update for details about the event. By 8 January the tilt at the summit and Pu`u `O`o, and the seismicity appeared to have returned to background levels.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
CENAPRED reported that low-level activity continued at Popocatépetl. The Washington VAAC remotely detected two exhalations on GOES-8 imagery during the week; at 1300 on 4 January a small eruption sent ash to ~7.3 km a.s.l. that blew to the E, and at 0655 on 8 January a brief ash-and-steam emission sent a cloud to ~6 km a.s.l. that blew to the E. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a 12-km-radius restricted area.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
Volcanic activity was above average on 31 December, and on 2, 4, and 5 January: shallow earthquakes were accompanied by short-lived explosions that sent ash plumes to a maximum height of ~2 km above the volcano. On 2 and 4 January a gas-and-steam plume rose 300 m above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano during 29 December to 5 January was similar to the previous week, with continued growth of the summit lava dome and high levels of rockfall activity. The overall level of seismic activity remained high. In addition, at 0406 on 5 January a regional earthquake was felt on Montserrat. According to the volcano observatories on Martinique and Guadeloupe, the earthquake's epicenter was about 40 km E of the island of Marie Galante, and had a provisional magnitude of 4.6. Marie Galante lies ~200 km SE of Montserrat. Lava dome growth continued, producing rockfalls predominately to the E, and to a lesser extent, to the S and W areas of the new growth. The spine growing atop the lava dome reached a maximum height of 1,052 m a.s.l. by the end of the report week. The Washington VAAC reported that throughout the week low-level (up to ~3 km a.s.l.) ash clouds, presumably produced by rockfalls, and periodic hot-spot activity were visible on GOES-8 imagery. Winds blew small amounts of ash to inhabited areas in the N and W of the island.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
The IG reported to the Washington VAAC that ash clouds were observed above the summit of Tungurahua several times during the week, reaching a maximum height of 7.9 km a.s.l. No ash was visible in GOES-8 imagery. The IG also reported that a slight increase in volcanic activity on 3 and 4 January was marked by moderate-sized ash-bearing emissions.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.