Report on Kilauea (United States) — 28 March-3 April 2007
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 March-3 April 2007
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2007. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 March-3 April 2007. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 28 March-3 April, lava from Kilauea continued to flow across a lava delta into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. Lava was not seen entering the ocean at the East Lae'apuki entry. During 28-29 March, a more than usual number of earthquakes were located near the Halema'uma'u and Koko'olau craters and on the S flank. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the Pulama pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. On 31 March, a major lava breakout from the Campout flow caused trees to ignite on a near-by kipuka (an "island" of vegetation) and produced small explosions from trapped gas.
Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.