Report on Kilauea (United States) — 13 February-19 February 2008
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 13 February-19 February 2008
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2008. Report on Kilauea (United States) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 13 February-19 February 2008. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Based on observations during overflights, and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 13-19 February activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and new satellitic shields to the E and SE. On 15 February, a broad pahoehoe flow traveled E from the main complex of shields. During 15-18 February, a lava flow traveled SE from a rootless shield (number 6) towards the N boundary of the Royal Gardens subdivision. Diffuse incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater through the fume during 17-19 February. Earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, beneath the summit, and along the E and SW rift zones.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.