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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 13 February-19 February 2008.


















 Activity for the week of 13 February-19 February 2008

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Llaima Chile New
Tungurahua Ecuador New

Anatahan Mariana Islands (USA) Ongoing
Callaqui Chile Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Nevado del Huila Colombia Ongoing
Ol Doinyo Lengai Tanzania Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
St. Helens United States Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Llaima  | Chile  | 38.692°S, 71.729°W  | Elevation 3125 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that explosions in the main crater of Llaima propelled incandescent material 200-500 m in the air during 8-13 February. Explosions occasionally alternated between N and S cones in the main crater. On 9 February, the Calbuco River was about 1 m higher than the normal level, likely due to melt water from the lava and glacier interaction. On 10 February, Strombolian eruptions from the main crater were observed during an overflight. The lava flows on the W flank were 2.5 km long and made channels in the ice tens of meters deep. Although visual observations were limited due to cloud cover, sulfur dioxide and steam plumes from lava interacting with ice during 10-14 and 17 February rose to altitudes of 4.1-6.1 km (13,500-20,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SE on 11 February. Lava flows were 3 km long on 11 February. On 13 February, incandescence at the summit was noted.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that although visual observations were limited due to cloud cover, ash and steam-and-ash plumes from Tungurahua were spotted and rose to altitudes of 6-9 km (19,700-29,500 ft) a.s.l. during 12-19 February. Ash plumes drifted mainly NW, W, and NE, and ashfall was reported in areas downwind. Roaring noises were occasionally heard. During 12-13 and 16 February, incandescence at the summit was observed. Noises resembling blocks rolling down the flanks were heard on 14 and 17 February. On 18 February, a lahar descended the Achupashal drainage to the NW.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Anatahan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 16.35°N, 145.67°E  | Elevation 790 m

The USGS reported a diffuse plume from Anatahan, possibly containing some ash, was visible on satellite imagery drifting SW on 14 February. On 17 and 19 February seismicity increased. On 18 February, both a low-level steam plume that possibly contained ash and a sulfur dioxide plume were visible on satellite imagery drifting SW. A sulfur dioxide plume was again noted on 19 February. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



Volcano index photo  Callaqui  | Chile  | 37.92°S, 71.45°W  | Elevation 3164 m

According to news articles on 14 February, scientists from the Universidad de Concepción will install instruments to monitor Callaqui. Local residents reported feeling earthquakes and hearing constant rumbling noises during the previous few weeks.

Source: El Mostrador



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that a minor explosion from Cleveland on 15 February produced a small, diffuse ash plume that rose to an altitude of below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Steam and steam-and-ash plumes from Colima were observed rising to altitudes of 4-4.4 km (13,100-14,400 ft) a.s.l. during 14-19 February. Plumes drifted N, NE, and E.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-19 February explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4-4.7 km (13,100-15,400 ft) a.s.l. Fumarolic plumes rose to altitudes of 3.9-4 km (12,800-13,100 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

Based on observations during overflights, and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 13-19 February activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and new satellitic shields to the E and SE. On 15 February, a broad pahoehoe flow traveled E from the main complex of shields. During 15-18 February, a lava flow traveled SE from a rootless shield (number 6) towards the N boundary of the Royal Gardens subdivision. Diffuse incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater through the fume during 17-19 February. Earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, beneath the summit, and along the E and SW rift zones.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Huila  | Colombia  | 2.93°N, 76.03°W  | Elevation 5364 m

INGEOMINAS reported that sulfur dioxide plumes from Nevado del Huila drifted NW on 8 and 12 February.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Ol Doinyo Lengai  | Tanzania  | 2.764°S, 35.914°E  | Elevation 2962 m

The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-19 February white and blue fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone rose to altitudes of 2.6-2.7 km (8,500-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and W. About two to five lava flows per day traveled about 50-200 m to the W and NW, slowly filling in the area between MacKenney cone and Cerro Chino crater to the N. Explosions on 8 February propelled fragments 100 m above the summit.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 12-19 February. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. An explosion on 12 February resulted in an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and ejected fragments that fell in the crater. On 14 February, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 8.4 km (27,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.2 km (7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, E, SE, and S during 12-15 and 17-20 February. Ashfall was reported in Barovon, Lalakua, Raluana, Kokopo, and surrounding villages downwind. During 19-20 February, incandescence at the summit was accompanied by projections of lava fragments. Roaring noises were sometimes heard.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported on 6 February that avalanches from lava flows on the W flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex continued. Explosions produced ash-and-steam plumes that rose to an altitude of 3.9 km (12,800 ft) a.s.l. On 8 February, a strong phreatic explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.7 km (15,400 ft) a.s.l. and caused ashfall in areas 4 km to the SW. Collapsing blocks of lava on the SW flank resulted in steam-and-ash plumes. On 12 and 18 February, lava flows on the S and SW flanks and avalanches of blocks that originated from the edge of the crater were noted. On 15, 18, and 19 February, explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.6-4.7 km (15,100-15,400 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported from areas 4 km to the SW on 15 February.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was slightly above background levels during 8-11 February and at background levels on 12 and 13 February. Based on seismic interpretation, ash plumes possibly rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. on 9 February. Strong fumarolic activity was noted during 8-9 and 11-12 February. According to observations of satellite imagery, a thermal anomaly was present in the crater every day during the reporting period. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that that during 13-19 February the lava dome at Soufrière Hills changed very little, based on visual observations. Seismic activity was very low and low-level rockfall activity continued. Fumarolic activity on the N and E flanks continued. Active fumaroles were also noted in the Galway's area to the S of the dome. Clouds obscured views to the W in the Gages Wall area. Heavy rainfall triggered lahars in multiple drainages. On 13 February, the lower Belham river valley to the W was impassable for a short time due to lahars. The Alert Level remained elevated at 4 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  St. Helens  | United States  | 46.2°N, 122.18°W  | Elevation 2549 m

Data from deformation-monitoring instruments indicated that during13-19 February lava-dome growth at Mount St. Helens continued. Seismicity persisted at low levels, punctuated by M 1.5-2.5, and occasionally larger, earthquakes. Clouds and snow cover frequently inhibited visual observations.

Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)