Report on Kilauea (United States) — 24 September-30 September 2008
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
24 September-30 September 2008
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2008. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 24 September-30 September 2008. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
HVO reported that during 24-30 September, lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the ocean entry. Explosions at the ocean entry were noted on 25 and 27 September.
During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, along the SW rift zone, and along the S-flank faults. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, 40-100 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor tephra content that drifted mainly SW. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume. The plume was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes. During an overflight on 26 September, HVO geologists estimated that the surface of the lava pond was about 120-140 m below the crater floor, about 20-40 m lower than the previous pond surface observed on 5 September.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.