Report on Krakatau (Indonesia) — 11 May-17 May 2022
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
11 May-17 May 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Krakatau (Indonesia). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 11 May-17 May 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 155 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-12 May ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, N, NW, and W based on satellite images and weather models. On 13 May satellite images showed a narrow ash plume drifting SE and E at an altitude of 2.4 km. Dense steam plume with minor ash content rose to 2.4 km and drifted NE, N, NW, and W during 14-16 May.
Geological Summary. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of that volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.