Report on Semeru (Indonesia) — 16 November-22 November 2022
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 16 November-22 November 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Semeru (Indonesia) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 16 November-22 November 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 16-22 November. White gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-200 m above the summit and drifted in various directions during 16-17 November. Emissions were not visible during 18-20 November, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. At 0608 on 21 November a white-to-gray ash plume rose around 400 m and drifted E. On 22 November white-to-gray ash plumes rose 300 m and drifted S at 0405, 600 m at 0503, and 800 m at 1541. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit, and 500 m from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Geological Summary. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.